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Since Sri Lanka and the People's Republic of China established diplomatic relations in the 1950s, China has become an important partner of Sri Lanka in the latter's cause of maintaining national independence and development. Meanwhile, Sri Lanka has been an important political and diplomatic partner for China in the Third World. Since Chinese president Xi Jinping proposed the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in 2013, Sri Lanka has become a new investment hot spot due to its location as a hub of the proposed 21st-Centrury Maritime Silk Road. This article provides views identifying the opportunities and potential challenges for Sino–Sri Lankan relations under the framework of China's 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road initiative.