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In 1818, John Sinclair’s advice for health and longevity included temporary retirement to the country. Two centuries later, life in rural America means higher death rates throughout the lifespan. Health care delivery in rural areas is limited by a number of hardships associated with low-density living, including a shortage of providers, limited cultural diversity, and geography. There are both profound challenges and deep rewards associated with providing health care services in rural areas. Barring a major change in the health care financing and delivery systems, solutions for bringing a full range of quality health care and preventive services to rural residents include incentivizing a full range of providers to practice in rural areas; exploiting the delivery infrastructure that has developed in response to the explosive growth in e-commerce; taking advantage of cellular, digital, and satellite technologies; and learning about what motivates providers to choose rural practice settings.