The Provenance of Selected Sheet Music of Warsaw Publishers (1875-1918) in the Main Library of the Stanisław Moniuszko Academy of Music (Gdańsk)
Owing to the presence of numerous Warsaw artists coming to Gdańsk in the 1920s, the city (and even the entire Tricity area) gained significance as a new Polish music cultural centre. The culture immediately gained the status of high culture due to dynamically developing music education, which had not collapsed even in the face of the outbreak of World War II. Despite excellent cultural conditions, musical activity with regard to publishing sheet music was at the other extreme. Basic Polish music literature was not available in the library of the State High School of Music (established in 1947), therefore, in order to study the students used the sheet music gathered by the lecturers, who would purchase them in Warsaw antiquarian bookshops, selecting the best publications. At present their history constitutes valuable material for provenance and musicological research, mainly due to the proprietary marks and personal notes in the documents.
Out of 371 titles of Warsaw publications that appeared between 1875 and 1918 and stored in the Main Library of the Stanisław Moniuszko Academy of Music in Gdańsk, the author selected musical prints coming from the largest collections of the school's former teachers: the singers Kazimierz Czekotowski (1901-1972), Maria Bojar-Przemieniecka (1897-1982), and Halina Mickiewiczówna (1923-2001), as well as pianist Zbigniew Śliwiński (1934-2003). They are a perfect example of the influence the Warsaw music centre had over the Tricity area since the interwar period, which resulted mainly from the Warsaw origin of the sheet music owners, the higher number of titles published in Warsaw, their content, and similarity of functions the studied publications had in Warsaw after 1875 and the functions they have currently in Gdańsk.
Cet article présente et analyse les résultats de la recherche sur la provenance de documents musicaux sélectionnés par les éditeurs de Varsovie entre 1875 et 1918, actuellement conservés dans les bibliothèques de Gdańsk. La plus grande collection appartient à la Bibliothèque principale de l'Académie de musique Stanisław Moniuszko. La recherche vise à présenter les sources de ces Varsaviana dans le but de déterminer l'importance des publications musicales de Varsovie pour l'histoire de l'enseignement de la musique dans les écoles de Gdańsk, pour promouvoir la culture musicale polonaise à Gdańsk et pour répondre aux questions posées par l'inclusion de documents musicaux imprimés de Varsovie dans les collections de livres de Gdańsk. L'article se concentre uniquement sur la provenance des partitions musicales conservées à la Bibliothèque principale de l'Académie de Musique et découvertes dans l'histoire des pédagogues les plus remarquables de l'Académie : les chanteurs Kazimierz Czekotowski (1901-1972), Maria Bojar-Przemieniecka (1897-1982) et Halina Mickiewiczówna (1923-2001) et le pianiste Zbigniew Śliwiński (1934-2003). L'examen de l'origine de ces documents musicaux est fondé sur des notes et dossiers manuscrits, des ex libris d'anciens possesseurs et de libraires, ainsi que sur l'analyse de données provenant des notices de la bibliothèque documentant l'entrée dans les collections.
Dieser Artikel stellt die Ergebnisse der Provenienzforschung zu ausgewählten musikalischen Dokumenten Warschauer Verlage aus dem Zeitraum von 1875 bis 1918 im Bestand Danziger Bibliotheken vor und zur Diskussion. Die Hauptbibliothek der Musikakademie Stanisław Moniuszko besitzt die größte dieser Sammlungen. Die Untersuchung möchte die Herkunft dieser Varsoviniensien klären und damit versuchen, die Bedeutung musikalischer Veröffentlichungen aus Warschau für die Geschichte der Musikpädagogik in Danziger Schulen und die Förderung der polnischen Musikkultur in Danzig herauszuarbeiten. Außerdem sollen die Gründe für die Einbeziehung von Warschauer Notendokumenten in Danziger Bibliotheksbestände beleuchtet werden. Der Beitrag beschränkt sich hauptsächlich auf die Provenienz der Noten in der Bibliothek der Musikakademie und erläutert dabei auch die Geschichte der herausragendsten Pädagogen der Akademie: der Sänger Kazimierz Czekotowski (1901-1972), Maria Bojar-Przemieniecka (1897-1982) und Halina Mickiewiczówna (1923-2001) sowie des Pianisten Zbigniew Śliwiński (1934-2003). Die Untersuchung des Ursprungs der musikalischen Dokumente basiert auf handschriftlichen Notizen und Berichten, Besitzstempeln und Stempeln des Buchhandels, außerdem wurden die Daten der Zugangsbücher ausgewertet.
This article presents and discusses the results of provenance research on selected musical documents of Warsaw publishers in the period from 1875 to 1918, currently stored in Gdańsk libraries, with the largest collection owned by the Main Library of the Stanisław Moniuszko Academy of Music (ML/AM). The purpose of the research is to present the sources of origination of these Varsaviana in an attempt to determine the significance of Warsaw musical publications for the history of teaching music in Gdańsk schools, for fostering Polish musical culture in Gdańsk, and to address the issue of the reasons for including Warsaw printed musical documents in the Gdańsk book collection. The article focuses solely on the provenance of the musical scores stored in the ML/AM, and discovered among the history of the most outstanding teachers of the Academy: the singers Kazimierz Czekotowski (1901-1972), Maria Bojar-Przemieniecka (1897-1982), and Halina Mickiewiczówna (1923-2001), and the pianist Zbigniew Śliwiński (1934-2003). The origination of the musical documents were examined based on handwritten notes and records, proprietary and bookshop stamps, as well as through an analysis of data from the library records documenting their entry into the book collections.
Gdańsk as a New Centre of Polish Musical Culture
All artistic, intellectual, architectural, and institutional goods of Gdańsk are perceived as products of the German environment and culture, mainly as a result of the activity of the Teutonic Knights and the later history of the city1. In the last quarter of the 19th century, the level of musical culture was considerably lower than in the proceeding centuries with Polish music being particularly discriminated against by the Prussian invader. The artists who promoted the works of Polish composers lost their jobs or were not permitted to give concerts2. Polish musical works were performed exclusively by amateur singing [End Page 166] societies as until the mid-1920s, there was only German music teaching. As a result of the treaties signed after World War I, new guidelines and provisions to regulate Polish education were drawn up, including those on music teaching. Polish artists living in Gdańsk and those visiting the city to give concerts were permitted to popularise national music; many musicians came mainly from Warsaw3.
The first Polish school of music, the Polish Music Conservatoire of the Polish Education Society in Gdańsk was established in 1929. Here, both Gdańsk and Warsaw professors gave lectures, including Zdzisław Roesner, a violinist; Aleksander Dulin (1885-1954), a conductor; Stefan Wasiak (1904-1982), a violinist and choir master; and Maria Wiłkomirska, a pianist (1904-1995).
Although World War II disrupted the entire development process of Polish musical culture, the musicians from Gdańsk returning to the Coast in the post-war years4 as well as the artists coming from other cities5 very quickly started to restore it, beginning with forming a music education system. As early as October 1945, the first entrance exams to the Institute of Music in Sopot were organised, founded by a group of artists and educators: Władysław Walentynowicz, a composer6; the singers Kazimierz Czekotowski and M. Bojar-Przemieniecka, and Jan Gorbaty (1902-1999), a pianist. Two years later, on 25 September 1947 the State High Music School (SHMS) was established in Sopot7 on of the initiative of Stefan Śledziński (1897-1986), a musicologist, while Jan Ekier (1913–2014), a pianist, was the first director of the school. The first faculty included: the Instrumental Faculty with Zenon Feli ski (1898-1971) as its Dean, and the Pedagogical Faculty with Roman Heising (1902-1989) as its Dean. In the following academic year there were already four faculties: theory, instrumental, vocal, and pedagogical. [End Page 167]
However, despite dynamically developing musical life in the interwar period, Polish bookshops and printing services related to music in the Tri-city area were virtually non-existent8. The bookshops offered mainly the literary works of Polish and Cashubian writers, various drawings, stationary, printed ephemera, and devotional articles, as well as Polish newspapers9. In Gdynia, from the 1920s, there had been four printing facilities, however, only one of them, run by Marian Niemierkiewicz10, printed musical documents11. After World War II both literary activity and, consequently, publishing activity needed a thorough restoration. Initially the publishing movement on the Coast had a social character, and the subject matter covered was highly diversified as resulting from current needs. Music was strongly marginalised and the publishing of sheet music took place only incidentally12. Until as late as the 1970s, the printing industry of the Tri-city area was the most poorly developed branch in the whole region. The reasons for the described situation included unstable conditions concerning facilities, the lack of machines, and paper. Printing usually took place in Koszalin, Wejherowo (the Cashubian-Pomeranian Association), and at the printing facility "Nowator" in Gdynia, where sheet music was printed mainly against the order of the SHSM, as well in the printing facility Zakłady Graficzne established in 1946 in Gdańsk.
Gdańsk music publishing houses were followed by the SHSM Publishing House in Sopot, whose first publications appeared as late as in 1957. This activity was initiated by docent Konrad Pałubicki (1910-1992). For thirty years, the Publishing House issued only dissertations, articles, and studies (the "Special Works" series), as well as scripts written by the pedagogues from the SHSM, publications including materials from academic seminars, and other materials and contributions to the history of the School ("Information Yearbook" series). Only since 1984 has sheet music began to be published (in the "Music of the Pomerania" series only one issue appeared: the score of Drugi koncert na organy, [End Page 168] sopran (lub tenor) i dzwony by H. H. Jabłoński)13, however, this scope of activity was fully developed after 2000.
In the light of the above constraints, Gdańsk libraries built their collections based on gifts. Similarly, the SHSM Library did not have Polish music literature resources—the lecturers used the post-German collections, and for Polish music they took advantage of Polish private collections gathered throughout the years. They inherited a large part of sheet music from their teachers, and upon retirement they donated the materials to the Library through their own students or their families. As mentioned before, the musicians building the Polish music education system came to the Coast mainly from Warsaw. They bought musical literature in Warsaw antiquarian bookshops, where they selected the best Warsaw publications. Their legacy currently constitutes a valuable resource for provenance and musicological research, mainly due to proprietary marks and personal notes left in the books.
General Characteristics of Warsaw Musical Documents Stored in the ML/AM in Gdańsk
Since 1947, Maria Jałozo14, a graduate of the Conservatoire of Music in Warsaw was the first library manager. As a result of her work the collection grew rapidly and in 1958 (the last year of her work), the number of volumes reached 5,658 pieces of sheet music, 3,847 books, 340 journals, and 551 recordings. She also initiated creating and keeping a register of books15. In October 1966, the School together with the Library were moved to Gdańsk, at ul. Łagiewniki 3. In December 1981, the Library changed its name to the Main Library of the Stanisław Moniuszko Academy of Music (ML/AM). In 2000, as a result of the school being moved to a new building at ul. Łąkowa 1-2, the library obtained facilities enabling further development. Currently, based on statistics from 31 December 2017, the collection of the Main Library comprises: 54,325 volumes of musical prints, including fiftyeight volumes of sheet music in the Braille system; 25,241 volumes of books; twenty-one titles of current journals (total of 2,034 volumes); 1,961 publishers' catalogues; the Documents of Musical Life (1, 934 posters and 2,535 programmes); 1,728 manuscripts; 7,685 analogue recordings; 4,889 compact discs; forty-six CD ROMs; 318 audio-visual documents; 274 microfilms; and 5,562 B.A. and M.A. theses (data from 18 June 2018).
Sheet music published in Warsaw in the years 1875-1918 and having a relevant publishing house address form a collection including 371 titles. In regard to the nationality of the composers of these musical works, the collection is highly diversified. The majority of composers are Polish, with Frédéric Chopin in first place (seventy-one titles), Stanisław Moniuszko (fifty-four titles), Piotr Maszyński (fifteen titles), Zygmunt Noskowski (seven titles), Mieczysław Karłowicz (five titles), Ignacy Kossobudzki (five titles), Karol Szymanowski (five titles), and Aleksander Zarzycki (five titles).
Among vocal and instrumental musical forms, songs for voice and piano prevail, followed by editions of arias from operas—the orchestra part arranged for piano. [End Page 169]
Vocal duets with piano accompaniment form a substantial minority in the collection. As in the case of solo songs they are works originally composed for two voices and piano, as well as piano extracts of duets from operas. Only one trio was identified (for soprano, tenor, baritone, and piano, in its original form)16. The collection also comprises piano extracts from complete operas: Halka and Verbum nobile by Moniuszko.
Choir music forms another category, which includes mainly songbooks for four-voice mixed or male chorus gathered and edited or composed by P. Maszyński and T. Joteyko, and the so-called music "mottos" written for choirs (also for those from outside of Warsaw) by various composers17. Milda, kantata mitologiczna litewska composed by Moniuszko18 deserves particular attention as it is the only example in the collection of a complete score of a vocal and instrumental work being a lithographed facsimile of a manuscript. It is the first edition of the cantata, which was simultaneously published as an extract as well as a score with orchestral voices19.
The third group of musical documents comprises piano compositions, mainly the works of Chopin included in the series Oeuvres de Piano, Édition de Jean Kleczyński; Revue et corrigée d'après les premières autorités pédagogiques et artistiques par Rodolphe Strobl.
The largest share of the sheet music market in the years 1875 to 1918 belong to five large publishing houses: Gebethner and Wolff, F. Hösick, M. Arct, G. Sennewald, and L. Idzikowski. This fact is reflected in the Gdańsk collection, however, a huge gap in the number of publications can be observed between Gebethner and other publishers: 258 titles were published by Gebethner and Wolff, while only twenty-seven by F. Hösick. Numerous publishers holding a significant and prestigious position are missing from this group, including E. Wende, the bookshops of Ungier and Banarski, or Michał Glücksberg. There are single specimens of sheet music from Echo Muzyczne (Musical Echo) and Meloman (Music Lover). At the same time there is no sheet music published as supplements to non-music journals.
As a result of provenance research all known forms of proprietary marks have been identified, with the exception of bookplates. The list includes the following types of marks:
1. Private proprietary notes:
–handwritten notes and dedications.
2. Stamps of various bookshops and libraries.
A significant share of the Varsaviana stored in the ML/AM comes from various collections, out of which the most important is the legacy of the first pedagogues and co-founders [End Page 170] of the SHSM. Three of them confirm the influence that the Warsaw musical centre had over the Tri-city area emerging since the interwar period. The influence resulted mainly from the Warsaw origin of the sheet music owners, a larger number of titles published in Warsaw, the similarity of functions that the studied publications had in Warsaw after 1875, and the role they played and still play in Gdańsk.
The largest collection belongs to two vocalists and pedagogues: Kazimierz Czekotowski and his wife Maria Bojar-Przemieniecka20, which was donated between March and April 1999 by Jan Kusiewicz (1921-2015)21. Professor Piotr Kusiewicz helped librarians from the ML/AM to transfer and subsequently rearrange the resources from this legacy22. The last protocols documenting the entering of the sheet music in the library book collection date to 2006.
Czekotowski was born on 2 March 1901 in Yekaterinoslav (until 2016 known as Dniepropetrowsk, at present Dniepr) in the Ukraine. In 1920, he came to Warsaw, studied at the Warsaw University of Technology and the Warsaw Conservatoire. He obtained his diploma in voice in 1927 following studies in the class of Professor Maria Sankowska23. After graduation he perfected his vocal skills in Italy under the direction of Alessandro Bonci (1870-1940)24 and Giuseppe Anselmi (1876-1929)25.
In 1930, upon his return to Poland, he began a career of a solo singer in the Poznań Opera26, however, already in 1931 he was invited by the president of Turkey to teach voice as a professor at the Ankara Conservatoire. He left Poland accompanied by his wife and sister Maria Czekotowska (1904-1992)27. Four years later he came back to continue his [End Page 171]
artistic career, including performing on the stage of the Teatr Wielki in Warsaw, and after the war, he organised the Secondary School of Music in Gdynia, and in Sopot where he taught classes at the Vocal Faculty of the SHSM. In the years 1951 to 1952 he was the dean of the faculty28. Czekotowski was also among the co-organisers of the Opera Studio at the State Baltic Philharmonic in Gdańsk.
In 1953, he returned to Warsaw where for two seasons he was a soloist at the Warsaw Opera. After two years he became more involved in organisational activities (he was, among others, a co-founder of artists unions—the Association of Polish Theatre and Film Artists, and the Association of Polish Music Artists), as well as pedagogical activities. He was a lecturer at the Fryderyk Chopin Music High School. He died in 1972 following a serious illness29.
The Warsaw part of both singers' legacies comprises mainly vocal-instrumental works: solo songs and solo arias (with a smaller number of duets and one trio) from operas, in the form of piano excerpts.
Each item of sheet music from the collection of Czekotowski is marked with a handwritten signature in pencil or in ink reading "KCzekotowski" and accompanied by a proprietary stamp reading "Kazimierz Czekotowski. Artysta opery" [Kazimierz Czekotowski. Opera artist] or "Kazimierz Czekotowski" (see Figure 1a-b). In three prints handwritten notes were identified, which are an invaluable source of information completing the knowledge about artistic activity of this outstanding singer (see Figure 2a-c). [End Page 172]
[End Page 173]
Fig. 2a. "Sang with the symphony orchestra in Ankara Kazimierz Czekotowski. Ankara 1935" [Eng.];
Fig. 2b. "For Prof. Kazimierz Czekotowski Warsaw 29 January 59 [illegible signature]" [Eng.];
Fig. 2c. "Turkish text sung in Ankara by Kazimierz Czekotowski" [Eng.].
Similary in the collection of M. Bojar-Przemieniecka, each copy has proprietary marks: the stamps reading "M. Bojar-Przemieniecka. Artystka opery" ["M. Bojar-Przemieniecka. Opera artist"] and numerous signatures in ink or in pencil:
–"Marja Bojar-Przemieniecka 10/I 1924 r.";
–"Marja Bojar-Przemieniecka 1926 r.";
–"Marja Bojar-Przemieniecka 1927";
–"Marja Bojar-Przemieniecka 1930 r.";
–"Marja Bojar-Przemieniecka 1933 r." (see Figure 3);
–"Marja Bojar-Przemieniecka Gdańsk-Sopot";
–"Marji Bojar-Przemienieckiej 1934 r.";
–"Maryli Preobrażeńskiej (see Figure 4)";
–"Maryli Przemienieckiej Warszawa 1916 r.";
Fig. 5a. "Wanda Mirowska",
Fig. 5b. "Gertruda [Limke?]",
Fig. 5c. "Kowalkowski" lub "Koralkowski",
Fig. 5d. "Marji Jarzębowskiej"
Fig. 5e. "M. Jarzębowskiej, 1928 r.". [End Page 174]
[End Page 175]
Only the stamp "M. Kaszyc" of Michał Kaszyc (1917-1978), a singer and a graduate of the Vilnius Conservatoire was identified. Kaszyc also took singing lessons in the class of M. Bojar-Przemieniecka. Since 1945, he had been living in Gdańsk and worked as an administrative clerk in the City Council. He played small roles in the Actors' Team of the Gdańsk Province. Subsequently, he was an actor at the Baltic Opera performing supporting roles (K. Czekotowski worked in the Opera also), and after 1961, Kaszyc worked as a stage manager and director's assistant31 (see Figure 6a-b).
A large collection of another outstanding singer and pedagogue, Halina Mickiewiczówna (1923-2001)32, donated in 2002 and 2004 by her granddaughter Justyna Trapkowska, is stored in the ML/AM. Mickiewiczówna was born in Stołpice in Wileńszczyźna (the Vilnius region), and in 1924 her entire family moved to Warsaw. Her artistic inclinations [End Page 176]
were soon discovered by her immediate family; however, she only started professional vocal training in 1941, from the beginning under the tutelage of one of the best female singers in Europe, Ada Sari33, with whom she lived during the ongoing occupation of Warsaw. This provided the opportunity to drink in the atmosphere and all the artistic glamour of Warsaw, and a chance to meet the most famous stars of the Polish opera in [End Page 177]
person. Mickiewiczówna made her debut on 22 May 1943 and that date marks the beginning of her artistic career, which included work at the Warsaw Opera and Polish Radio. In 1948, she married singer, Jerzy de Larzac34. In 1959, Mickiewiczówna began her singing at the Music Theatre in Gdynia, working at the same time in Warsaw and the State Szczecin Operetta. In the 1960s, she began teaching voice, both at the SHSM in Gdańsk and the Vocal and Acting School of the Music Theatre in Gdynia. A large group of excellent Polish vocalists who became internationally known had attended her class.
A part of the resources of this unique singer, including iconography, heirlooms, and documents, is stored in the ML/AM as a deposit, hence the items have not been rearranged to date. The remaining part of her legacy included among the permanent library resources comprises sheet music, both prints and manuscripts. The latter still need to be organised and catalogued. The following items can be identified: transcriptions prepared by various people, sketches and fragmentary modifications of different musical works, and those written on single sheets torn out of sheet music paper35.
Among the 371 examined Varsaviana, only the compositions for voice and piano can be found. In musical prints belonging in the past to the singer, her name, "Ada Sari"36, written in pencil can be identified most frequently (see Figure 7). [End Page 178]
In other copies of sheet music used by Mickiewiczówna, various proprietary marks were added. Several volumes bear the signature of her husband, "J. de Larzac", "Jerzy de Larzac", or "własność J. de Larzac" ["property of J. de Larzac"], as well as his initials (see Figure 8). On a copy of Ernani, scena e romanza by Giuseppe Verdi, apart from the signature of J. de Larzac written in pencil, there appear the initials of another vocalist, Michał Sileński (1888-1983)37, "M. Sileński", written in ink (see Figure 9).
In one of the copies of Halka by Moniuszko, there are several proprietary marks of Mickiewiczówna herself: the initials "H. Mick[…]" and the stamp "Halina Mickiewicz, ul. Abrahama 84/15, 81-387 Gdynia, tel. 20-56-47" on the verso of the title page (see Figure 10). Whereas on the recto of the title page there is a note: "Śpiewałam po raz pierwszy w [End Page 179]
[End Page 180]
Several proprietary marks come from people not directly related to Mickiewiczówna or her family. Some notes in the collection of Mickiewiczówna are surprising (e.g., a note by Jolanta Bylczyńska); they were organised according to the likely degree of closeness in the relationship with the singer:
–the stamp "Mieczysław Nałęz Grąbczewski. Ul. Zielna 3 m 12", Mieczysław Nałęcz-Grąbczewski (1905-1982), a singer at the Warsaw Opera and the Polish and French Radio, participant in the September and French Campaigns lived at this Warsaw address39 (see Figure 12);
– "J. Bylczyńska" - Jolanta Bylczyńska-Ciarra, a choir conductor, a graduate of the SHSM in 1966. She wrote her M.A. thesis under the supervision of docent Konrad Pałubicki. She published her dissertation as a book in 201241;
–"H. Markowska"42. [End Page 182]
An extensive legacy of the pianist and pedagogue Zbigniew Śliwiński was donated to the ML/AM in 2002 by his family. The collection of volumes is gradually being added to the resources of the library. The materials include personal documents of Śliwiński and sheet music.
Śliwiński initially studied in Warsaw, and moved in 1945 to the State High School of Music in Katowice. This city became the place of his artistic life after graduation, and where, concurrent with his studies, he also taught. In 1961, he moved to the Coast and continued teaching at the SHSM in Gdańsk. From 1965 to 1999, he acted as the Head of the Piano Department, and from 1982 to 1984, he held the position of Vice-Director of the SHSM. He dealt with musical editing, focusing on editing works by Polish composers of the 18th century to the 20th century, as well as works of the Viennese classics and music pieces intended for teaching purposes43. [End Page 183]
The part of his legacy studied by the author comprises over sixty copies of sheet music, including the works of Chopin coming from the educational series of Rudolf Strobel. Only two proprietary marks were identified:
The presented legacies include only a part of the collection of Warsaw musical documents dating from 1875 to 1918 stored in the ML/AM. The remaining prints, not mentioned in this paper have been donated by numerous people: pedagogues from the Gdańsk School of Music and their families, the readers of the Main Library, and musicologists and researchers studying the musical culture of Gdańsk.
The Varsaviana were presented and discussed for several reasons. First, handwritten notes of the most outstanding pedagogues of the Academy of Music in Gdańsk can be found therein and their presence in the documents show that the publications had more than utilitarian value for their owners. The personal character of some of the inscriptions [End Page 184]
points to the sentimental and commemorative value of the objects, which is noteworthy. The notes in the sheet music are the only evidence proving the rich artistic life of these pedagogues. Moreover, they are of documentary value. The unidentified people, whose signatures remain in the prints, have been purposefully mentioned in the hope that they may be identified in the future.
Also discussed in this article is the type of musical activity carried out by pedagogues and donors: the Czekotowskis and Mickiewiczówna were vocalists, whereas Śliwiński was a pianist, which ideally matches the richest, and thus most thoroughly studied area of Warsaw musical culture from the turn of the 19th century: vocal and piano creativity. The Warsaw sheet music repertoire gathered by Gdańsk artists provides a full picture of the unique character of the Warsaw musical market from 1875 to 1918: taking into account the presence of musical forms, performance casts, and publishing series, particularly educational materials for piano. Simultaneously the repertoire mirrors the needs of the Warsaw musicians-performers, and musicians-pedagogues and their students in thit time period. The repertoire was almost directly transferred to Gdańsk, where such publications were in high demand beginning with the interwar period in Gdańsk and also for the teaching purposes of the emerging musical education. At that time, sheet music belonging to the lectures was the basic and frequently the only educational material for teaching voice or [End Page 185] playing musical instruments, more so as up until 1984 there had been no music publishing house in Gdańsk.
At present, mainly due to their provenance, each of these legacies has gained archival value, and the sheet music published before 1918 has even been assigned the status of cimelia by the ML/AM. The proprietary marks and notes remaining in them continue to be a subject of study carried out primarily by musicologists searching for information that allows for the completion of factual data in the biographies of artists active in Gdańsk, and to discover their connections with other Polish and foreign music centres. [End Page 186]
Marta Walkusz is a music theorist and composer. Since 2004, she has been working in the Main Library of the Stanisław Moniuszko Music Academy in Gdańsk as a cataloguer. In her work, she is particularly interested in determining the proper date of issue for printed music, which requires detailed research including preserved provenance marks.
1. Gerard Labuda. "Gdańsk jako ośrodek kultury w przeszłości", Rocznik Gdański 29-30 (1970): 5-12, at 8-9.
2. Bogdan Czyżak. "Upolitycznienie kultury", in Historia Gdańska, Vol. 4/1: 1815-1920, ed. Edmund Cieślak (Sopot: Wydawnictwo Lex, 1998), 485-486.
3. In 1926, the Polish Music Society was established. Due to the efforts of the chairmen: Franciszek Kubacz (1868-1933) and Kazimierz Wiłkomirski (1900-1995), the following artists performed on the Coast: singer, Jan Kiepura (1902-1966); composer, Feliks Nowowiejski (1877-1946); singer, Ewa Bandrowska-Turska (1894-1979); composer, Ludomir Różycki (1883-1953); pianists, Marguerita Trombini-Kazuro (1891-1979), Józef Turczyński (1884-1953), Aleksander Wielhorski (1888-1952), and Stanisław Bącz-Osmołowski; violinists, Irena Dubiska (1899-1989), Bronisław Huberman (1882-1947), Zdzisław Jahnke (1895-1972), and Leonia Dobrzańska (1895–1960); cellist, Zdzisława Wojciechowska (1907-1985). Gdańsk composers, Tadeusz Tylewski (1898-1959) and Hubert Strobel (date of birth and death unknown), and in later years Henryk Jabłoński (1915-1989), Edward Żuk (date of birth and death unknown), and Lubomir Szopiński (1913-1961) also presented their works.
4. They included among others: Henryk Jabłoński, Marian Antoniak, T. Tylewski, Jan Gdaniec, and Ludgarda Chudzicka, cf. Anna Michalska. Prekursorzy gdańskiej pedagogiki wokalnej XX wieku, Musica Vocale, scientific year's issue, 1 (Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Akademii Muzycznej, 2012), 45.
5. Again these were mainly musicians from Warsaw, pianist, Z. Turski (1908-1979), Kazimierz Czekotowski (1901-1972) and Maria Bojar-Przemieniecka (1897-1982), Bohdan Wodiczko (1911-1985), Władysław Walentynowicz (1902-1999), Roman Kuklewicz (1908-1984), and Janusz Urbański (1912-1986), cf. Anna Michalska. Prekursorzy gdańskiej pedagogiki wokalnej XX wieku, op. cit. 45-46.
6. Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Muzyczna w Gdańsku. Zarys działalności Uczelni w okresie 1947-1967, [ed.] Roman Heising (Gdańsk: PWSM, 1968), 6-7.
7. As a result of merger of the Instytut Muzyczny with the music school in Gdańsk-Wrzeszcz headed by Stanisław Bielicki and the music school in Gdańsk-Oliwa headed by Tadeusz Kloś became in 1945 the Gdańsk Musical Institute headed by Władysław Walentynowicz. However, in 1946, Gdańsk schools were taken over by the City Council and the Gdańsk Musical Institute was divided into two schools: secondary and high. The latter later became the SHSM in Sopot, which was comprised of three schools: a secondary school headed by Zofia Heinrich, a secondary school headed by Stefan Tarkowski, and a high school headed by Stefan Śledziński. Cf. Anna Michalska, op. cit., 49.
8. In regard to Polish commercial companies in the Gdańsk area since the 1920s, only the specialist companies and publishing consortia dealt with the publication of journals and to a lesser degree with publishing of monographs on general subjects. The subject literature lists the following titles: Spółka Akcyjna "Gazeta Gdańska", Towarzystwo Wydawnicze Pomorskie, Towarzystwo Akcyjne Drukarnia Bydgoska, Pomorska Spółdzielnia Wydawnicza "Gryf ", and Narodowa Spółka Wydawnicza, cf. Andrzej Romanow. "Wydawcy i drukarnie polskie w Wolnym Mieście Gdańsku (1920-1939)", Rocznik Gdański 38, no. 2 (1978): 93-120, at 97.
9. Marian Pelczar. Ksi garstwo gdańskie w wieku XIX i w pierwszej połowie XX wieku (czasy zaboru pruskiego i okres Wolnego Miasta Gdańska 1920-1939) (Gdańsk: Stowarzyszenie Księgarzy Polskich, 1980), 35-41.
10. M. Niemierkiewicz was active as a publisher from 1908 to 1919 in Pozna (Księgarnia oraz Magazyn i Wydawnictwo Nut Marian Niemierkiewicz); he published mainly music prints, less frequently publications on art and cultural issues, cf. Artur Jazdon. Wydawcy poznańscy 1815-1914. Kształtowanie środowiska i repertuaru wydawniczego (Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, 2014), 151-152, 252, 338. In 1927 or 1928, he moved to Gdynia, cf. Zdzisław Dobrzański. "Niemierkiewicz Marian", in Słownik Pracowników Ksiązżki Polskiej, ed. Irena Treichel (Warsaw: PWN, 1972), 627. Cf. Marian H. Niemierkiewicz, Akademia Opowieści. Księgarz z Gdyni i jego niezwykła kolekcja, http://trojmiasto.wyborcza.pl/trojmiasto/7,35612,23286532,akademia-opowiesci-ksiegarz-z-gdyni-i-jego-niezwykla-kolekcja.html, accessed 15 March 2019.
11. Danuta Nowicka. "Życie kulturalne Gdyni 1926-1939", Rocznik Gdyński 7 (1986): 200-207, at 206. Cf. also Jolanta Laskowska. Ruch wydawniczy w Gdańsku po II wojnie światowej [doctoral thesis] (Gdańsk: Uniwersytet Gdański, 2002), 62.
12. E.g., march songs with sheet music published by Spółdzielnia Wydawnicza "Żeglarz", operating in Gdynia from 1946 to 1949. Cf. Jolanta Laskowska. Ruch wydawniczy w Trójmieście po II wojnie światowej (1945-1989) (Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego, 2009), 38.
13. Jolanta Laskowska. Ruch wydawniczy w Trójmieście po II wojnie światowej (1945-1989), op. cit., 153-156.
14. Birth and death dates unknown.
15. Irena Czarnecka. "Biblioteka Główna", in Akademia Muzyczna im. Stanisława Moniuszki w Gdańsku 1947-1997. Księga Jubileuszowa, ed. Janusz Krassowski (Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Akademii Muzycznej, 1997), 104.
16. Aleksandr S. Dargomyžskij. Nocowała chmurka złotowłosa = Nocevala tucka zolotaâ, trio [for soprano, tenor, baritone, and piano], Russian lyrics by Mihail Û. Lermontov (Warsaw: Leon Idzikowski [in Drukarnia Społeczna Stowarzyszenia Robotników Chrześcijańskich, Pl. Grzybowski 3/5.; sheet music printed by K. Drzewiecki, after 1911]).
17. E.g., Hasła "Lutni" oraz stowarzyszeń śpiewackich w Warszawie, w Łodzi, w Kaliszu, w Radomiu, w Wieluniu, [for male choir a cappella] (Warsaw: Echo Muzyczne, ). The collection includes "mottos" composed by Zygmunt Noskowski, Józef Horky (birth and death dates unknown), Tadeusz Joteyko, and Władysław Rzepko (1854-1932).
18. Stanisław Moniuszko, Milda, kantata mitologiczna litewska, orchestra score verified and prepared for printing by Piotr Maszyński, lyrics: Józef Ignacy Kraszewski (Warsaw: Warszawskie Towarzystwo Muzyczne, Sekcja im. Stanisława Moniuszki; Publ. Gebethner and Wolff, ), http://ebuw.uw.edu.pl/dlibra/docmetadata?id=279493&from=publication, accessed 15 March 2019.
19. Krzysztof Mazur. Pierwodruki Stanisława Moniuszki (Warsaw: PWN, 1970), 160, 224.
20. Maria Magdalena Czekotowska, née Szymańska (or Szyniańska, cf. Cmentarz Powązkowski w Warszawie, http://www.sowa.website.pl/powazki/Pochowani/spiszm.html (accessed 15 March 2019) vs. Preobrażeńska, pseudonim Bojar-Przemieniecka, a singer and pedagogue. She graduated from Maria Sobolewska's school in the Warsaw Conservatoire and completed her studies in Germany and Italy. She frequently performed together with her husband K. Czekotowski, mainly on the opera stages of Poznańand Warsaw, and in the years 1933-1935 in the Ankara Philharmonic. In Turkey, they both taught singing. From 1936, Bojar-Przemieniecka led classes at the Karol Kurpiński School of Music in Warsaw, after World War II in music schools of the Tri-city area, and after 1953, at the State High School of Music in Warsaw. Cf. Maria Czekotowska, "Encyklopedia Teatru Polskiego", http://www.encyklopediateatru.pl/osoby/42747/maria-czekotowska, accessed 15 March 2019.
21. Jan Kusiewicz, Doktor Honoris Causa Akademii Muzycznej im. Stanisława Moniuszki w Gdańsku. Gdańsk 19 listopada 2012 roku, ed. Dagmara Dopierała (Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Akademii Muzycznej, 2012), 14-15.
22. Professor Piotr Kusiewicz, a tenor and voice teacher at the Vocal-Singing Faculty of the Academy of Music in Gdańsk, the son of Jan Kusiewicz and K. Czekotowski's godson.
23. Maria Sankowska, from 1920 until the post-war years a professor teaching singing at the Warsaw Conservatoire. Cf. Magdalena Dziadek. Od Szkoły Dramatycznej do Uniwersytetu. Dzieje Wyższej Uczelni Muzycznej w Warszawie 1810-2010, [Vol. 1]: 1810-1944 (Warsaw: Fryderyk Chopin Music University, 2011), 385. The same author also provides the second name of Sankowska: Maria Antonina. Cf. Ead., [Vol. 2]: 1945-2010 (Warsaw: Fryderyk Chopin Music University, 2016), 17, 39. Available sources do not give the birth and death dates of the singer, the likely date of death is 1962. Cf. Warszawskie Zabytkowe Pomniki Nagrobne, https://cmentarze.um.warszawa.pl/pomnik.aspx?pom_id=6209, accessed 15 March 2019.
24. Józef Kański. "Bonci Alessandro", in Encyklopedia muzyczna PWM, część biograficzna. [Vol. 1]: A-B, ed. Elżbieta Dziębowska (Kraków: PWM, 1979), 361.
25. Józef Kański. "Anselmi Giuseppe", Ibid, 55.
26. Marek Kaczanowski. Kazimierz Czekotowski - życie, działalność artystyczna i pedagogiczna, a M.A. thesis written under the supervision of Professor Piotr Kusiewicz (Gdańsk: 1994), 7. The thesis is stored in the Archives, in the Warehouse of the ML/AM in Gdańsk, inventory no. PD 2765, signature 78(043)III - Kac-Kaz.
27. Maria Antonina Czekotowska, a singer, the sister of K. Czekotowski. From 1935 to 1939, vocal soloist at the Teatr Wielki in Warsaw. Cf. "Maria Czekotowska", in Encyklopedia Teatru Polskiego, http://www.encyklopediateatru.pl/osoby/5722/maria-czekotowska, accessed 15 March 2019. Cf. the information about Czekotowska under the entry "Czekotowski Kazimierz", in Słownik Biograficzny Teatru Polskiego 1900-1980 (Warsaw: PWN, 1994), 2:136-137.
28. Andrzej Zawilski. "Wydział III Wokalno-Aktorski", in Akademia Muzyczna im. Stanisława Moniuszki w Gdańsku 1947-1997. Ksi ga Jubileuszowa, ed. Janusz Krassowski (Gdańsk, Wydawnictwo Akademii Muzycznej, 1997), 69-70.
29. The life and work of Czekotowski and his collection were more broadly discussed in the author's article, cf. Marta Walkusz. "Kolekcja muzyczna Kazimierza Czekotowskiego (1901-1972) w zbiorach Biblioteki Głównej Akademii Muzycznej im. Stanisława Moniuszki w Gdańsku", Z Badań nad Książkaą i Księgozbiorami Historycznymi (2017): 11:277-297, at 279-280.
30. During an interview Professor P. Kusiewicz told the author that the Czekotowskis frequently bought materials in Warsaw antiquarian bookshops, which together with the works that were dedicated and presented to them allowed them to gather such a significant collection. In the sheet music where the stamp of Czekotowski was identified, there is also a stamp reading "Gebethner i Wolff, Księgarnia i Skład Nut, Poznańul. Ratajczaka 30", cf. Edvard H. Grieg. Un réve = Ein Traum [for baritone and piano], Polish lyrics by Zofia Vieweger. (Warsaw: Gebethner and Wolff [printed by L. Biliński and W. Maślankiewicz, Nowogrodzka 17, ca. 1905]). Source: the ML/AM, inventory no. N 44281; signature: 78(0.068) Grieg E - Traum. Czekotowski was known to perform in the years 1930-1931 in Poznań, therefore the stamp is evidence of his visit and music purchases in the city. Several copies of sheet music from his collection bear the stamps of the Warsaw branch of the bookshop of L. Idzikowski located at ul. Marszałkowska 115, i.a., Ludwig van Beethoven. Apaisement, [for voice and piano], Polish lyrics by Stella Milner (Warsaw: Gebethner and Wolff [C. Witanowski, Oboźna 9, 1913]). Source: ML/AM: inventory no. N 44369; signature: 78(0.068) Beeth L - Ukoje. It was a highly popular practice in the pre-war years to make frequent purchases in antiquarian bookshops, hence the identity of the people whose signatures can be found in the copies, is not practically traceable, mainly due to the lack of knowledge about the dates and the place of their stay (home and work addresses), and their type of activity. Stamps could be used by people enjoying a well-established positions and prestige, e.g., lecturers and professional artists. In regard to handwritten signatures, it was a popular practice to write the surname of the student or the accompanist that were assigned to perform a given musical work. Therefore, not each signature is necessarily an autograph. However, the fact that the name of Maria Jarzębowska appears twice in the same collection raises doubts as to its accidental character; unfortunately, the person and her relationship with the Czekotowskis remains unknown.
31. "Almanach sceny polskiej, sezon 1960/1961", ed. Edward Csato (Warsaw: Wydawnictwa Artystyczne i Filmowe, 1962), 177; cf. "Kaszyc Michał", in Słownik biograficzny teatru polskiego 1900-1980 (Warsaw: Instytut Sztuki PAN, 1994), 2:299. Both entries provide incorrect information that Kaszyc studied in Vilnius in the class of Bojar-Przemieniecka; the singer never taught at the Vilnius school, she belonged to the Warsaw pedagogical group.
32. Katarzyna I. Gawęcka. Halina Mickiewiczówna. Ciepło głosu i serca (Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo DJ, 2009), 15, 329. This publication is the only monograph published about Mickiewiczówna, and is based on memoirs of the singer, and accounts by her family and friends, as well as those of students and coworkers. Apart from this monograph, there are also M.A. theses written at the i.a. Vocal-Acting Faculty of the Academy of Music in Gdańsk, some of which are cited in this article.
33. Ada Sari, her actual name was Jadwiga Scheuer (Szayer or Szajer) (1886-1968), cf. Katarzyna I. Gawęcka. Halina Mickiewiczówna …, op. cit., 75, 279; cf. Jadwiga Ścibisz-Borecka. Trzy pokolenia [diploma thesis] (Gdańsk, PWSM, 1976), 3.
34. The birth and death dates of de Larzac are not known; we only know that he was about ten years older than Mickiewiczówna. He was a baritone by profession, focused more on singing in operetta and entertainment performances than on the opera stage, cf. Katarzyna I. Gawęcka. Halina Mickiewiczówna …, op. cit., 142. Cf. also "Wesołe święta przy mikrofonie", Nasza Praca. Tygodnik dla wsi, Ch. 3 no. 16 (17 April 1938): at 3.
35. H. Mickiewiczówna had an unusual scale of voice and virtuoso coloratura skills. The transcriptions, which were prepared specifically for her performances, pose a challenge for other singers. Musical works were specially arranged for her by the conductor Mieczysław Nowakowski (1934-2017), cf. Katarzyna I. Gawęcka. Halina Mickiewiczówna …, op. cit., 230, 440, and were copied by J. de Larzac, Ibid., 153.
36. Sari's signature cannot only be found in the sheet music from the collection of J. Trapkowska. It can also be found in the collection of J. Kusiewicz and in a copy of sheet music bought in the antiquarian bookshop of Maria Skrzyńska-Paszkowicz in Gdańsk, at Startowa Street, likely for the presence of Sari's signature on the document. Cf. Mieczysław Karłowicz. Mów do mnie jeszcze …, [song] op. 3, no. 1 for solo voice [high voice] with piano accompaniment, to the poems of Kazimierz Tetmajer (Warsaw: Michał Arct, ). Source: ML/AM: Z inventory no. N 47721; signature.: 78(0.068) Karło M - Mówdo.
37. Michał Ardatti, actual name Sileński, singer and pedagogue, studied music and law in Moscow. He performed mainly in Warsaw, as well as in Dolina Szwajcarska [the Swiss Valley]. He sang leading roles in the most famous Verdi operas (Rigoletto, Aida, Traviata), as well as in Ernani, which is evidenced by his signature on one of the arias of this opera, likely also sung by J. de Larzac. Cf. "Michał Ardatti" in Encyklopedia Teatru Polskiego, http://www.encyklopediateatru.pl/osoby/19075/michal-ardatti, accessed 15 May 2019.
38. Maria Bielecka (1887-1974), outstanding opera singer and actress. She studied singing in the class of Tadeusz Leliwa and in the School of Drama in Lviv. She performed with numerous theatrical groups on many stages in Poland and abroad, frequently singing the leading opera roles. In 1925, she went to Italy to study singing, cf. "Maria Bielecka-Machlejd" in Słownik biograficzny teatru polskiego 1900-1980 (Warsaw: PWN, 1994), 2:43. On 1 May 1927 in the Teatr Wielki in Warsaw, she played the role of Halka in the Moniuszko opera, cf. "Kurier Warszawski" 107, no. 118 (1 May 1927): at 10. According to the provenance in the "Gdansk" copy of Halka, the second performance of this opera with her participation took place on 12 February 1927 in Katowice.
39. "Życie Warszawy" no. 276 (6 December 1982).
40. It is uncertain which music school is meant; judging by the name it cannot be a high school; the name of Stanisław Dąbrowski is not included in the list of people connected with the Warsaw Conservatoire, cf. "Indeks osób", in Magdalena Dziadek. Od Szkoły Dramatycznej do Uniwersytetu … Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, op. cit. Moreover, no music school of lower degree mentions the name of such a professor, not even in its archival materials.
41. Jolanta Bylczyńska. Twórczość chóralna Stanisława Wiechowicza (Gdańsk: [author's edition], 2012), cf. Jolanta Bylczyńska, Twórczość chóralna Stanisława Wiechowicza [M.A. thesis] written under the supervision of docent K. Pałubicki (Sopot: PWSM, 1966), stored in the ML/AM, inventory no. PD 116, signature: 78(043)IVA - Byl-Twó.
42. An unidentified person.
43. Alicja Wieczorek. Działalność artystyczna i pedagogiczna Profesora Zbigniewa Śliwińskiego, [M.A. thesis] written under the supervision of Waldemar Wojtal (Gdańsk, Academy of Music, 2000), 44-46.
44. Maria Śliwińska, née Wieczorek (1908-1979) also taught; from 1965, she offered a course in piano playing methodology. She died following a serious illness. Cf. Alicja Wieczorek, op. cit, 11, 14. Cf. also Janusz Krassowski. "Sylwetki dawnych pedagogów", in Akademia Muzyczna im. Stanisława Moniuszki w Gdańsku 1947–1997. Księga jubileuszowa, ed. Janusz Krassowski (Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Akademii Muzycznej, 1997), 143.