English Abstract

One of the greatest challenges faced by musicologists is the proper identification and attribution of works preserved in manuscript sources. The aim of this article is to discuss this problem taking as an example Masses preserved in the Pauline Monastery at Jasna Góra (one of the largest collections of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century music in Poland) that are ascribed to Francesco Perneckher. The biography of this composer is still partly unknown, but between 1759 and 1768, he was employed in this monastery as a violinist and Kapellmeister. The Katalog tematyczny rękopisów i druków muzycznych kapeli wokalno-instrumentalnej na Jasnej Górze [Thematic Catalogue of Music Manuscripts and Prints of the Vocal-Instrumental Ensemble in Jasna Góra] by Paweł Podejko lists six Masses by Francesco Perneckher. However, after careful analysis of the preserved sources, examination of the handwriting and comparison with the RISM database (presented in detail in the article), we may conclude that there are only two Masses of certain attribution: Missa Nativitatis Domini in A (shelf mark II-199) and Missa Nativitatis in F (shelf mark II-198). In the other cases, either the work was written by another composer (e.g., František Xaver Brixi) or else the preserved remains of the manuscript preclude a reliable identification.

French Abstract

L'une des questions les plus importantes auxquelles doivent faire face les musicologues concerne l'identification et l'attribution des œuvres conservées dans les sources manuscrites. L'objectif de cet article est de discuter cette problématique en prenant pour exemple des messes conservées au sein du monastère Pauline à Jasna Góra (l'une des plus grandes collections de musique des 18e et 19e siècles en Pologne), attribuées à Francesco Perneckher. La biographie de ce compositeur comporte toujours des zones d'ombre, mais entre 1759 et 1768, il fut employé dans ce monastère en tant que violoniste et maître de chapelle. Le Katalog tematyczny rękopisów i druków muzycznych kapeli wokalno-instrumentalnej na Jasnej Górze [catalogue thématique de musique manuscrite et imprimés d'ensembles vocaux et instrumentaux a Jasna Góra] de Paweł Podejko fait mention de six messes de Francesco Perneckher. Cependant, après examen approfondi des sources conservées, analyse de l'écriture manuscrite et comparaison avec le RISM (présenté en détail dans cet article), nous pouvons conclure qu'il n'y a que deux messes dont l'attribution soit vraiment certaine: Missa Nativitatis Domini in A (cote II-199) et Missa Nativitatis in F (cote II-198). Dans les autres cas, soit la pièce a été écrite par un autre compositeur (ex. František Xaver Brixi) ou bien les autres manuscrits conservés ne permettent pas d'identification fiable.

German Abstract

Die genaue Identifikation und Zuschreibung handschriftlicher Werke stellt eine der größten Herausforderungen für Musikwissenschaftler dar. Ziel dieses Beitrages ist die Erörterung genau dieses Problems an Hand des Beispiels von Messen, die im Paulinerkloster in Jasna Góra aufbewahrt und Francesco Perneckher zugeschrieben werden. Das Paulinerkloster besitzt eine der größten Sammlungen von Noten aus dem 18. und 19. Jahrhundert in Polen. Die Biografie des Komponisten Perneckher ist bis heute teilweise unbekannt, aber zwischen 1759 und 1768 war er im Kloster als Geiger und Kapellmeister beschäftigt. Der Thematische Katalog der Musikhandschriften und drucke der Vokal-Instrumental-Kapelle am Hellen Berg von Paweł Podejko verzeichnet sechs Messen von Francesco Perneckher. Nach sorgfältiger Analyse der Quellen, Untersuchung der Handschriften und Abgleich mit der RISM-Datenbank können ihm - wie im Einzelnen im Artikel dargestellt - jedoch wohl nur zwei Messen gesichert zugeordnet werden: die Missa Nativitatis Domini in A (Signatur II-199) und die Missa Nativitatis in F (Signatur II-198). In den anderen Fällen wurde das jeweilige Werk entweder von einem anderen Komponisten verfasst (z. B. František Xaver Brixi) oder aber die erhaltenen Teile der Handschriften schließen eine zuverlässige Zuordnung aus.

One of the greatest challenges faced when working with music manuscripts is to establish or to verify the attribution of preserved works. This concerns not only the vast quantity of anonymous copies, but also sources signed by name. Considerable caution is needed even in relation to the latter, since—as we know—instances where one and the same work is ascribed to different composers in different sources are rather more the rule than the exception. Some contemporary scholars have also slipped up in this respect, be it only in over-interpreting certain facts, such as mistaking the name of the scribe on the title page of a work for the name of the composer. As a consequence, their publications occasionally bring added confusion to the complex problem of attribution.

This issue, familiar to musicologists, is illustrated in the present article using the example of Masses by the eighteenth-century composer Francesco Perneckher held in the archive of the Pauline Monastery at Jasna Góra (in Częstochowa)1. Perneckher's biography remains largely a mystery, but we do know that from 1759 to 1769 he was violinist and Kapellmeister of the local ensemble, where he was very highly-regarded and well-paid2. The starting point for my discussion is the thematic catalogue of music sources from the vocal-instrumental ensemble of Jasna Góra, prepared by Paweł Podejko3. This distinguished [End Page 156] author attributed six settings of the ordinarium missae to Perneckher. These are works marked in his catalogue with numbers from 1072 to 10774. Due to the complex situation in respect to the sources, as well as uncertainties regarding attribution, each of the manuscripts will be discussed separately.

The first composition is a Missa in C, cat. no. 1072. According to information given in the thematic catalogue, this manuscript is incomplete: it is lacking a title page, and the only extant parts are for alto, two violins, violone, and organo. As such, it is likely that at least three vocal parts are missing. In Podejko's opinion, the anonymous source for this work is an autograph manuscript, and that was one reason for ascribing the Mass to Perneckher (Podejko also briefly mentions 'shared features with other works which show Perneckher to be the composer'). In attempting to verify those arguments, we soon encounter the first difficulties. In the Jasna Góra archive, under the shelf mark III-829, we find only the parts for two oboes from another Mass by an unknown composer. I have established that this is an anonymous manuscript listed in the catalogue under no. 1728 and linked to the shelf mark III-911. Unfortunately, there is more to this than a simple switching of two shelf marks, since under the number III-911 we find not the anticipated fragments of Perneckher's Mass, but only the blank cover of a Missa ex Dis by an unknown composer, with the annotation 'ex scriptis D[omini] Ścigalski', dated 1823. Interestingly, this cover does not appear in the catalogue, be it under anonymous compositions or under Ścigalski's name. Consequently, until this puzzle is solved, we cannot establish whether the manuscript of the Missa in C described in the catalogue and now held under an unknown shelf mark was indeed copied by Perneckher or whether there are any clues relating to compositional technique that might enable us to ascribe this work to him.

All that remains of another Mass in C major (no. 1073, shelf mark III-940) is a single sheet containing a part for clarino primo. In this situation, Podejko's wording 'characteristic graphic features and musical details attest to Perneckher's authorship' sounds particularly unreliable and reveals how little such judgments are worth5. It is hard to see what details of this intrinsically schematic trumpet part might evidence for the work of this particular composer. Its role in the work is clearly marginal (as can be gauged, for example, by the lengthy rests), and the part itself does not go significantly beyond stereotypical formulas. The sole distinguishing noteworthy feature is the sporadic use of relatively high notes (up to and including d³), but this by no means enables us to indicate even approximately a group of potential composers. Podejko's assertion is all the more hazardous in that, during the eighteenth century, the parts for brass instruments in vocal-instrumental pieces of this kind were commonly altered, added, or removed at later stages of transmission. One point of reference here is the output of the Pauline composer Fr Amandus Ivanschiz (1727-1758), dating from around the same time. Many of his works have been preserved in up to a dozen or more copies, and the brass parts in different sources of the same composition are sometimes completely different6.

It is worth noting that the trumpet part in question is listed in Podejko's catalogue as a Perneckher autograph manuscript, which no doubt inclined him to attribute the whole work to this composer. Yet comparison of this source with other autographs by the Jasna [End Page 157] Góra Kapellmeister obliges us to reject such a possibility (see Fig. 1). The differences in the notation of notes, rests, clefs, and time signatures are sufficiently distinct that it seems clear that the anonymous clarino part under the catalogue no. 1073 was written by another hand. We overlook here the obvious statement that not all the pieces written in the hand of this composer, who was also the chapel-master responsible for acquiring repertoire, can be automatically regarded as his own works. Given these arguments, we find absolutely no evidence suggesting that the extant clarino primo part might come from a work by Perneckher.

The third Mass ascribed to the Jasna Góra Kapellmeister is a Missa Brevis, no. 1074. The manuscript bears the shelf mark III-517, but some of the parts—alto, tenor, bass, violins, and trumpets—carry the deleted shelf mark III-856, which probably results from the fact that the author of the catalogue succeeded in matching together separately preserved fragments of a single work. Noted on the cover of the manuscript, according to Podejko, is 'Missa Brevis | a | Canto, Alto | Tenore, Basso | Violino Primo | Violino Secundo | Con | Organo | Authore D[omino] Francesco Perneckher | […]'7. It should be pointed out that due to the fading ink the inscription on the title page is very faint. In addition, a stain on the composer's surname makes it practically impossible to read. However, comparing single visible fragments of individual letters, we can state that the reading proposed by Podejko is certainly wrong8. What is more, the soiling may have resulted from an attempt to deliberately blur the composer's name. Particular cause for wariness is the fact that the scoring of this composition specified on the title page does not entirely correspond to the contents of the manuscript, which—besides four vocal parts, two violins and organ—includes two trumpets. The musical language of this Mass displays clear features of a Christmas styling, such as unison tutti passages over a triad, pedals in the bass, an insistent alternation of dominant and tonic, the sporadic introduction of the so-called Lydian fourth, and pastoral arias in 6/8 time. This fact further weakens the credibility of the cover, on which we find the title Missa Brevis, and not the 'Missa nativitatis' or 'Missa pastoralis' that would be expected in this context. This Mass is also noticeably longer than the remaining settings attributed to Perneckher (the Gloria alone numbers 401 bars).

All doubts are ultimately resolved by a comparison of the composition's incipit with the content from the RISM database. It turns out that, besides the discussed source, this work has been preserved in as many as eight other manuscripts held in Austria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, and Switzerland (see Table 1). With a consistency rarely encountered in eighteenth-century sources, each of these manuscripts is signed with the name of František Xaver Brixi and titled (with one exception) in a way that clearly points to the Christmas period. Therefore, we may suspect that in the Jasna Góra collection, the manuscript of Brixi's Mass was matched with a different cover, on which the old surname was blurred. Let us note that in front of the surname we find the relatively legible Christian name 'Francesco', which could also have referred to Brixi.

It is worth drawing attention to one further clue. Inscribed in red ink on the cover of the Mass is the marking N 161, which refers to the Cathalogus Notarum, compiled in 1898 [End Page 158]

Fig 1. Comparison of the handwriting of two clarino primo parts.
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Fig 1.

Comparison of the handwriting of two clarino primo parts.

Table 1. Other sources for Missa Brevis, no. 1074, shelf mark III-517.
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Table 1.

Other sources for Missa Brevis, no. 1074, shelf mark III-517.

[End Page 159]

by the Kapellmeister Franciszek Maletz9. In that catalogue, this Mass was listed in the 'in archivio' section, so it was probably no longer in use. Interestingly, the word 'ignotus' was written in the rubric relating to the composer10. So it is likely that the surname on the title page was already illegible towards the end of the nineteenth century. Let us add that the Cathalogus Missarum of 1819 contains two pastoral Masses by Brixi in the key of D major11, and among the works currently ascribed to him in the Jasna Góra collection only one Mass is marked in this way (no. 112, shelf mark III-54). It cannot be ruled out, therefore, that Brixi's other Mass for Christmas mentioned in the Cathalogus Missarum is the discussed composition (no. 1074), rashly and groundlessly linked to the output of Perneckher.

The twin Masses Missa Nativitatis Domini in A (no. 1075, shelf mark II-199) and Missa Nativitatis in F (no. 1077, shelf mark II-198) have come down to us in autograph manuscripts signed with Perneckher's name. Both also are noted as his works in catalogues from 1819 and 1898; in the latter list, however, the key of the first composition was wrongly indicated as D major12. Despite this, the corresponding numbers noted on the title pages of the two sources leave us in no doubt that the inventory entries concern these manuscripts. The works also display clear musical and structural similarities (see below). Thus in relation to both settings it can be taken as certain that Perneckher was the composer.

The last work in this genre ascribed to Perneckher by Paweł Podejko is a Missa Pastoralis in A (no. 1076, shelf mark II-288)13. Contrary to information contained in the catalogue14, this manuscript is not complete—it is lacking one sheet of the Canto concertato part. Although the Canto ripieno part, which doubles the Canto concertato is preserved, it covers only tutti passages. Thus we are deprived of the solo part in the soprano aria Quoniam, and in the closing section of the solo Domine Deus. It is also unclear whether the Et incarnatus in the original was sung by solo alto or was a duet between canto and alto. The defect probably arose before the Jasna Góra collection was set in order during the twentieth century, since the numbering written in pencil in the top right corner of each folio is continuous, so the manuscript was already incomplete when that numbering was added. On the cover, we read 'Pro Choro Cl:[ari] M:[ontis] C:[zenstochowiensi] 1834', which indicates that this composition was only brought to Jasna Góra in the 1830s. Despite this, the features of the manuscript and the music itself clearly indicate that the work was composed around the mid-eighteenth century. The Cathalogus Missarum from 1819 contains only two Christmas Masses by Perneckher: in A and in F. These are undoubtedly the above-mentioned Missae Nativitatis. We do not find there, however, the Mass under discussion, be it under Perneckher's name or among the anonymous works, which also indicates that this manuscript was not in the chapel's collection at that time. A Missa Pastoralis only appears in the Cathalogus Notarum from 1898, as a work by an unknown [End Page 160] composer15. The main argument that led Paweł Podejko to attribute this Mass to Perneckher was his conviction that the trumpet parts were notated in his hand. Comparison of the sources does indeed confirm distinct similarities with the script of the Jasna Góra Kapellmeister (see Fig. 2; cf. Fig. 1). The other parts were written out by a different scribe, probably also around the mid-eighteenth century. It is possible that the manuscript later became the property of another ensemble before subsequently returning to Jasna Góra. This may explain its absence from the 1819 catalogue and the date '1834' that appears on the later cover. Such a journey would not be an isolated case: a similar path was probably taken by the manuscripts of Perneckher's Offertorium pastorale and Tantum ergo, which in the 1790s belonged to the chapel of the Canons Regular in Kłobuck and are now held in the archive of the Pauline monks of Częstochowa.

To sum up our observations thus far, we can state that the Jasna Góra collection includes only two Masses which can be securely ascribed to Perneckher. They are the Missa Nativitatis Domini in A (no. 1075) and the Missa Nativitatis in F (no. 1077). The manuscript of the Mass in C (no. 1072) was already incomplete at the time it was catalogued; today, due to the erroneous ascription of shelf marks, its state and exact location are unknown. Meanwhile, the attribution of the anonymously preserved Missa Pastoralis in A (no. 1076) is not certain and requires further research. Particularly useful may be comparison of this work with the two Masses of secure authorship.

Comparing the Missa Nativitatis Domini in A (no. 1075) and the Missa Nativitatis in F (no. 1077), we note close similarities between the two works (see Table 2). Planned in almost identical fashion were the structure of the cycle and the division of the text: the Kyrie Allegro preceded by an Adagio introduction, the three-movement pattern of the Gloria and Credo and the two-movement Agnus Dei. The only discrepancies can be observed in the Sanctus, on account of the joint setting of Pleni sunt caeli and the first Osanna in the Missa Nativitatis in A. Equally striking are similarities in the choice of the metre and tempo for particular sections. It should be noted, that in Perneckher's works, unlike in the so-called cantata Masses which were popular at that time, we do not find a single separate solo aria, even in such typical places as the setting of Christe eleison or of the Benedictus. Also surprising is the highly monotonous choice of solo parts. Besides the tutti ensemble, the composer employs almost exclusively a duet of soprano and alto, which he sets over short passages against a full choir. In terms of texture, strict homorhythm is clearly predominant. The few exceptions include a 28-bar fugue in the Quoniam from the Missa Nativitatis in F and short polytextual passages in the Credo, in which the parts are rhythmically more independent.

The anonymous Missa Pastoralis in A (no. 1076) shares some features with the two extant Masses by Perneckher. The similarities are particularly noticeable when we compare the opening section of this cycle and of the Missa Nativitatis in A. Both works begin with an Adagio introduction, in which two tutti blocks are separated by a passage sung by a duet of soprano and alto. In the Missa Pastoralis, as in the two compositions of certain attribution, the text of Christe eleison is not isolated as a separate solo section, and the Kyrie, disregarding the slow introduction, is of a one-part design, which in those days was a less popular solution than the ternary structure Kyrie - Christe - Kyrie. Analogies can also be discerned in the general character of the musical language, yet they concern features that were common to many composers active at that time and may only suggest that [End Page 161]

Fig 2. Comparison of clarino parts written in the hand of Perneckher.
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Fig 2.

Comparison of clarino parts written in the hand of Perneckher.

all the works date from a similar period. However, comparison of the other parts of the Mass reveals differences between the twin works by Perneckher and the anonymous composition. Above all, the formal concept of the Mass cycle is different: the anonymous setting is much closer to the cantata Mass, in which the parts of the Ordinary consist of independent arias, ensembles, and choruses arranged in accordance with a certain convention (e.g., imitation in Cum sancto, soprano aria in the Benedictus, etc.). In the Missa Pastoralis, the choice of solo parts is usually also limited to soprano and alto; besides the short duet segments, however, they also sing separately, which is a crucial difference in relation to Perneckher's compositions. While in both of the Missae Nativitatis there is not a single part scored entirely for one solo voice, in the anonymous composition we find as many as four elaborate arias: the soprano Domine Deus, Quoniam, and Benedictus, and the alto Et incarnatus16. Additionally, in both the Masses by the Jasna Góra Kapellmeister, the longest movement of the cycle is the Credo, while in the Missa Pastoralis the Gloria setting is clearly more expansive. We note differences also in the texture: the anonymous setting is characterised by a slightly greater rhythmic independence of the voices in the choral sections in contrast to the dominant homorhythm in the works of secure authorship.

Given the serious doubts over the attribution of the Missa Pastoralis in A, let us again consider the clues that led Paweł Podejko to ascribe the work to Perneckher. As already mentioned, that hypothesis was inspired primarily by the fact that the trumpet parts were [End Page 162]

Table 2. Structural comparison of the Missa Nativitatis Domini in A and Missa Nativitatis in F by Perneckher.
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Table 2.

Structural comparison of the Missa Nativitatis Domini in A and Missa Nativitatis in F by Perneckher.

written in the hand of the Jasna Góra musician, which was confirmed by our comparison. However, familiar with the practices of eighteenth-century copyists, entirely different conclusions regarding this work's attribution may be derived from observation of the source itself. If Perneckher wrote only the parts marked 'clarini ad libitum', while the rest of the source was written in a different hand, it would be natural to assume that the Jasna Góra Kapellmeister added the trumpet parts to the existing work of another composer due to some immediate need. After all, that was a common practice during the eighteenth century. Such a state of affairs is suggested also by the RISM data. A Mass with identical incipits, but scored for an ensemble without trumpets (CATB, 2 vn, org), can be found in the collection of the Benedictines of Lambach in Austria, where it is hypothetically attributed to Anton Neumann17. This fact does not end the discussion about the work's attribution, but in the context of all the arguments set out above it seems highly unlikely that Perneckher composed it.

To sum up, we can state that, contrary to the entries in Podejko's catalogue, the Jasna Góra Archive contains not six, but only two Masses by Francesco Perneckher: Missa Nativitatis Domini in A (no. 1075) and Missa Nativitatis in F (no. 1077). He may also have written the anonymous manuscript of the Missa in C (no. 1072), which was incomplete [End Page 163] when the catalogue was compiled and is now lost, but we cannot judge whether that was a piece composed or merely copied by Perneckher18.

In such a huge work prepared by one person as the catalogue compiled by Paweł Podejko, it was impossible to avoid mistakes entirely. Nevertheless, passing over the inevitable minor flaws and omissions, it must be asserted that this distinguished author, in attributing anonymously preserved works to particular composers and identifying copyists, not infrequently allowed himself unjustified over-interpretations. No doubt this was caused to a large extent by the difficult working conditions in the unfavourable times of the Communist regime and the necessity of dealing with the archive materials in small batches. Perhaps, when assessing handwriting, Podejko had to rely solely on his own memory, and not on direct comparison of the necessary sources. Yet it is rather worrying to note that data from this and other similar catalogues of Polish collections are being gradually entered into the RISM database in which a hypothetical, often entirely ungrounded, attribution appears as a source-based fact. It is likely that this concern would be resolved by a thorough verification of the data entered into RISM on the basis of earlier publications or at least a clear specification of the source of information in each of the records created.

The issues discussed here are also part of a wider problem. New, previously unknown or inaccessible music collections are continually coming to light, expanding the crucial range of comparative materials. For this reason, research into music sources is one of those activities that can hardly be regarded as finally closed and complete, and its results require continual verification, with the use of constantly improved tools and databases. [End Page 164]

Maciej Jochymczyk

Maciej Jochymczyk is an assistant professor at the Institute of Musicology of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. His scholarly interests are centred on Central European sacred music of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, as well as aspects of music editing and source studies. He is the author of three books and a number of critical editions and articles, as well as joint editor-in-chief of series C of Fontes Musicae in Polonia.


1. This is one of the largest collections of music manuscripts and prints in Poland (more than 2,400 catalogued items), comprising mainly sacred works of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. See Paweł Podejko. Kapela wokalno-instrumentalna na Jasnej Górze. Studia Claromontana, 19 (Warszawa: Wydawnictwo OO. Paulinów, 2001); Aleksandra Patalas. 'Musica Claromontana - Music in Jasna Góra Monastery: Attributions, Forms, Style, Exchange of Repertoire', Fontes Artis Musicae 57, no. 2 (2010): 148-161; Remigiusz Pośpiech. 'Die Bedeutung des Paulinerklosters Heller Berg (Jasna Góra) für die Entwicklung der Musikkultur der Stadt Tschenstochau (Częstochowa): Polen ab dem 18. bis Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts', Musikgeschichte in Mittelund Osteuropa. Mitteilungen der internationalen Arbeitsgemeinschaft an der Universität Leipzig 14 (2013): 83-96.

2. Liber perceptarum et expensarum sacristiae claromontanae from the years 1759-1783, Pauline Monastery Archive in Jasna Góra (hereafter PL-CZ), shelf mark 210. As there are no extant account books from the sacristy from before 1759, it cannot be ruled out that Perneckher belonged to the ensemble earlier. The hypothesis that he died in 1769, advanced by Podejko, among others, is not borne out by sources. The author is grateful to Fr Dr Dariusz Cichor OSPPE for making available his unpublished text concerning the composer's activities. Most likely, the musician in question is the same as Francesco Bernecker, whose works are held in the Silesian Museum in Opava (CZ-OP), and also among currently inaccessible holdings of the Church Library in Pilica (PL-PIk).

3. Paweł Podejko. Katalog tematyczny rękopisów i druków muzycznych kapeli wokalno-instrumentalnej na Jasnej Górze. Studia Claromontana, 12 (Kraków: Wydawnictwo OO. Paulinów, 1992).

4. Ibid., 431-433; shelf marks respectively III-829, III-940, III-517, II-199, II-288, II-198.

5. Ibid., 431.

6. Maciej Jochymczyk. Amandus Ivanschiz - His Life and Music. With a Thematic Catalog of Works (Kraków: Musica Iagellonica, 2016), 114-115, 126.

7. Paweł Podejko. Katalog tematyczny, 431.

8. Unfortunately, on the basis of Podejko's catalogue, the misread contents of the title page were also recorded in the RISM database (ID no: 300237579).

9. Catalogus Notarum quae tum in Archivo, tum in Choro asservantur compositus a cura Admodum Reverendi Patris Eusebii Rejman Prioris Clari-Montani Anno Domini 1898, PL-CZ, shelf mark 182.

10. Ibid., 5 (no. 161).

11. Cathalogus Missarum Musicae in Claro Monte Czenstochoviensi, compiled by Michał Zabłocki in 1819, PL-CZ, shelf mark 1479, p. 33, nos. 5 and 9.

12. Cathalogus Missarum, 33 (nos. 8 and 14), Catalogus Notarum, 13 (no. 517), 14 (no. 520).

13. Due to the limited amount of space, the title on the cover of the manuscript reads exactly as follows: Missa Pastor: A:.

14. Paweł Podejko. Katalog tematyczny, 432.

15. Catalogus Notarum, 13 (no. 513).

16. As already mentioned, we cannot rule out the possibility that Et incarnatus was intended for a duet of soprano and alto, yet a Canto Concertato solo part has not been preserved in the manuscript under discussion.

17. A-LA, shelf mark M 252, RISM ID: 603001389.

18. Incidentally, it is worth noting that in Perneckher's biographical note included in Kapela wokalno-instrumentalna na Jasnej Górze, p. 310, Paweł Podejko mentions only three Masses by this composer: the two Missae Nativitatis and a Missa Brevis; this last work—as we have established—is by F. X. Brixi. Recordings of all three Masses have appeared in the series Jasnogórska Muzyka Dawna - Musica Claromontana, vols. 18, 24, and 47 (as F. X. Brixi).

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