The Cistercian Musical Practice in Eighteenth-Century Silesia in Light of Surviving Musical and Archival Collections
In 1651, the Silesian Cistercian province was formed, including six male monasteries (Lubiąż, Krzeszów, Henryków, Kamieniec Ząbkowicki, Rudy, and Jemielnica), and a female one (Trzebnica). Until 1742, the province found itself on the lands of the Catholic Habsburg Monarchy, and subsequently, in Protestant Prussia. Cistercian monasteries were the mainstay of the Catholic Church in disputed lands and during religious wars; under Prussian rule they underwent an economic regression, but until their dissolution in 1810, music was maintained at a high level. This article presents an overview of the extant, but institutionally dispersed collections of Silesian Cistercians. On this basis, and with attention to standard texts of the order and local archival sources, a picture of musical culture in the years 1651-1810 emerges. The people responsible for music in monasteries are presented, especially the office of regens chori figuralis. An overview of musical ensembles in monasteries—whose members were monks or laymen, depending on the condition of the establishment—is given, based on the background of Cistercian ensembles from outside the province.
A short discussion of the extant repertoire will serve to outline everyday musical practice. Music was present not only during the liturgy (everyday, holiday, or linked with important monasterial events, such as name days of abbots), but also at guest visits and recreation, sometimes held outdoors. This article demonstrates how the Silesian province monasteries are viewed as part of the wider European monastic community. The inspiration for the study of Silesian Cistercians, also in the realm of music, were travels to general chapters, during which many monasteries and churches were visited.
En 1651, fut fondée la communauté cistercienne silésienne, comprenant six monastères masculins (Lubiąż, Krzeszów, Henryków, Kamieniec Ząbkowicki, Rudy et Jemielnica) et un monastère féminin (Trzebnica). Jusqu'en 1742, la province se trouvait sur les terres de la monarchie catholique des Habsbourg, puis par la suite, de la Prusse protestante. Les monastères cisterciens étaient le pilier de l'Église catholique dans des pays en conflit et lors des guerres de religion ; sous la domination prussienne, malgré une régression économique, la musique fut maintenue à un niveau élevé, jusqu'à leur dissolution en 1810. Cet article présente un aperçu de l'ampleur des collections cisterciennes de Silésie, dispersées dans différentes institutions. Sur cette base, et en étudiant les textes standard de l'ordre et les sources d'archives locales, émerge un tableau de la culture musicale des années 1651-1810. Les personnalités responsables de la musique dans les monastères sont mises en avant, en particulier celles de l'office du Regens chori figuralis. Nous dressons un panorama des ensembles musicaux dans les monastères - dont les membres étaient soit des moines soit des laïques, selon les conditions de l'établissement – basé sur le contexte des ensembles musicaux cisterciens de l'extérieur de la province.
Une brève discussion sur le répertoire existant servira à souligner les pratiques musicales quotidiennes. La musique était présente non seulement pendant la liturgie (quotidienne, jours saints ou en relation avec les événements importants des monastères, tels le jour de la fête des abbés), mais également lors de visites d'invités et de loisirs, parfois interprétée en plein air. Cet article montre comment les monastères de la province silésienne sont considérés comme faisant partie de la communauté monastique européenne au sens large. Des séjours dans les chapitres généraux, au cours desquels de nombreux monastères et églises ont été visités, ont inspiré cette étude des moines cisterciens silésiens, domaine musical compris.
Die schlesische Zisterzienserprovinz, bestehend einem Frauen- und sechs Männerklöstern (Lubiąż, Krzeszów, Henryków, Kamieniec Ząbkowicki, Rudy, und Jemielnica), wurde im Jahr 1651 gegründet. Bis 1742 gehörte die Provinz zum katholischen Gebiet der Habsburger und ging anschließend ans protestantische Preußen. Zisterzienserklöster waren die Stütze der katholischen Kirche in umstrittenen Gebieten und während der Religionskriege. Zwar unterlagen diese unter preußischer Herrschaft wirtschaftlichen Einschränkungen, aber trotzdem wurde die Musik auf hohem Niveau gehalten, bis es im Jahr 1810 zur Auflösung der Klöster kam. Der Aufsatz gibt einen Überblick über die noch bestehenden, aber über diverse Institutionen verstreuten Bestände aus den schlesischen Zisterzienserklöstern. Auf dieser Grundlage sowie unter Berücksichtigung der Standardtexte des Ordens wie auch lokaler Archivquellen entsteht ein Bild der Musikkultur der Jahre von 1651 bis 1810. Die für die Musik in den Klöstern verantwortlichen Personen, insbesondere das Amt des regens chori figuralis, werden vorgestellt. Vor dem Hintergrund zisterziensischer Ensembles außerhalb der Provinz gibt der Text einen Überblick über die Musikensembles in den Klöstern, deren Mitglieder, abhängig von den Bedingungen der jeweiligen Einrichtung, Mönche oder Laien waren.
Mittels einer kurzen Erörterung des noch vorhandenen Repertoires wird die tägliche Musikpraxis skizziert. Musik war nicht nur während der liturgischen Handlungen gegenwärtig (täglich, feiertags oder auch in Verbindung mit wichtigen Ereignissen des Klosters wie z. B. Namenstagen der Äbte), sondern auch wenn Besucher kamen oder zur Erholung; sie wurde auch im Freien gespielt. Der Aufsatz stellt dar, wie die Klöster der schlesischen Provinz als Teil einer größeren, europäischen Klostergemeinschaft betrachtet wurden. Inspiration für die Untersuchung des Musiklebens der schlesischen Zisterzienser waren Reisen zu den Domkapiteln, die auch Besuche von Klöstern und Kirchen beinhalteten.
The Cistercians arrived in Silesia, then part of the Kingdom of Poland, in the midtwelfth century. Located in the border area of Czech, Polish, and German lands, the region often changed its state belonging and was a territory of confessional wars and disputes. The capital of the region continues to be Wrocław. In the years 1526-1741, Silesia belonged to the Catholic Habsburg Monarchy. In 1651, a separate Silesian province of Cistercians was formed, which included male monasteries in Lubiąż, Krzeszów, Henryków, Kamieniec, Rudy, and Jemielnica, and a female convent in Trzebnica1. Earlier, they belonged to the so-called Czech-Moravian-Silesian-Lusatian Vicariate2. In the second half of the seventeenth century, after the end of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648), Cistercian monasteries flourished both economically and culturally. Temples and residences were rebuilt in the baroque style. The Cistercian artistic patronage created perfect working conditions for the best artists of this time active in Silesia. Enormous numbers of baroque works of art—the monastery church of Lubiąż alone displayed sixty paintings by Michael Willmann (1630-1706)3—transformed the interiors of modest medieval oratories of monastic orders into spaces for religious instruction where the visual art was aimed to complete the substance proclaimed by monks from the pulpit. The music played at liturgy, especially on feast days, was as far removed from the original Cistercian ideals of simplicity as were the interiors of the baroque-styled temples. It was complementary to the latter's splendorous decoration and served the same goal as the fine arts. When in 1741 Silesia found itself under the rule of Protestant Prussia, a gradual regression began taking place in Cistercian monasteries. Nonetheless, music there always remained at a high [End Page 138] level. The end of Cistercian activity was brought about by the dissolution of Silesian monasteries in 1810.
The Displacement of Musical Collections and Their State of Preser vation
The musical culture of the Cistercians is documented in contemporary times by liturgical books containing Gregorian monody (medieval and modern) and musical manuscripts with vocal-instrumental works used in monasteries during the eighteenth century. After the dissolution of monasteries, musical collections and monastic archives were irreversibly dispersed. The most valuable musical books and manuscripts were first transported from the monasteries to the Silesian Central Library (Schlesische Central-bibliothek)4 in Wrocław, while less valued books were left in place for parish use or given out to local schools or libraries. Lists of the musical materials transported from the monasteries have mostly not survived. We only know that eleven musical manuscripts and fifteen old musical prints were transported from Henryków to Wrocław5; almost all survived until today. An unknown number of female Cistercian manuscripts in Trzebnica were left at the monastery for the local choir rector's use6; today, those manuscripts are no longer in the parish, only the portion transported to Wrocław having been preserved. Another fate was met by an enormous Cistercian musical collection in Krzeszów; only the most valuable items were transported to Wrocław, while most musical manuscripts were left in place, where they are still kept (presently a convent of the Benedictine Nuns)7. The musical materials gathered in Wrocław from the closed monastic libraries were forwarded in 1814 to the library of the newly created Royal Academic Institute of Church Music (Königliches Akademisches Institut für Kirchenmusik)8. In 1920, the Institute was transformed into a musicological university unit (Musikalisches Institut bei der Universität Breslau). The effect of concentrated inventory work in the library was a publication by Ernst Kirsch in 19229. It contained a history of the library and a description of the collection. The library was active until 1941, following which the collections were evacuated in fear of air strikes. After World War II, Wrocław found itself in Polish territory. The musical collections were assumed by the Department of Musicology functioning in the already Polish University of Wrocław. However, the unit was closed in 1951, and a year later, its collections—by decision of ministerial authorities—were shipped to the University of Warsaw Library10. Today, monastic manuscripts are kept in the Music Department of the [End Page 139] University of Warsaw Library. It is worth noting that non-musical old prints and manuscripts from the Cistercian monasteries of Silesia are still kept at the University of Wrocław Library, while archival documents, mainly in Wrocław archives (state and archidiocesan).
The aforementioned pre-World War II publication by Ernst Kirsch is on the one hand a valuable source of knowledge about the old holdings, and on the other hand, a point of departure for research into the collection of Cistercian musical materials conducted in recent years. In post-war studies, only catalogues of musical sources from the Cistercian monastery in Krzeszów have been published: musical manuscripts kept in the old abbey (along with a detailed discussion of the monastery's musical culture in the eighteenth century)11, and compositions included in the precious collection of lute tablatures from Krzeszów, now kept at the University of Warsaw Library (also with an exhaustive discussion of repertoire)12. My current research conducted at the University of Warsaw Library seeks to prepare the most exhaustive catalogue of Cistercian manuscripts and prints housed there. Owing to detailed sessions in the storage room13 and provenance research focused on the respective notes and owners, as well as copyists' names, belongings to monastery holdings have been established for around seventy additional musical manuscripts, which constitutes nearly thirty percent of the Cistercian collection established until now. (See Table 1. Numerical comparison of Cistercian manuscripts.) All manuscripts have been catalogued in the RISM database.
The musical sources' state of preservation is poor; they almost entirely lack from some monasteries. In others, what survives are almost exclusively manuscripts with vocalinstrumental liturgical works, yet music was present in the monastery also outside the liturgy. The picture of Cistercian musical activity in Silesia is completed by archival sources. The order's normative texts preserved inside transmit knowledge about the binding norms and preferred type of liturgical music, as well as persons and offices responsible for them. Archival sources such as parish books and catalogues of monks transmit the forenames and surnames of persons engaged in monastic musical activity, along with temporal indications. Journals documenting the daily life of one monastery and the travels of Silesian abbots to the general chapters in Cîteaux transmit information about the circumstances of musical performance and provide a testimony of the wide cultural contacts facilitating the flow of repertoire. In turn, preserved musical manuscripts transmit particular works, but seldom contain information about performance circumstances. The present article is an attempt at combining information from extant sources—both archival and musical—and showing the daily musical practice of Cistercian monasteries in Silesia. [End Page 140]
Cistercians and Music
In keeping with the rulings of Cistercian general chapters, liturgical music was for centuries limited to Gregorian chant, as attended to by the cantor. The office remained among the more important ones in the monastery; the cantor was responsible for preparing the liturgy and singing. In documents from the entire period of monastic activity, one finds a number of cantors' names from all Silesian abbeys14. Monks chosen for this office were as much as possible competent and gifted with a beautiful, sonorous voice, as was the cantor of the monastery in Henryków, Father Mansuetus Lindner (1755-1825), of whom it has been written: "habuit vocem amoenissimam"15. [End Page 141]
A significant change was brought in the year 1486, when the Cistercian General Chapter gave permission for the use of organs during liturgy (at Mass and selected canonical hours) on Sundays and holidays, except in Lent and Advent. The organ was allowed to be played in the so-called alternatim technique, i.e., in alternation with Gregorian chant, but not to be sounded simultaneously with singing. These norms were still in effect during the second half of the seventeenth century16. Only in the eighteenth century did the custom of simultaneous accompaniment become widespread in Cistercian monasteries. This practice is testified to by instruction-type books preserved in monasteries. They were owned by the Cistercians in Fürstenzell (1724), Salem (1752), and the female Cistercians in Seligenthal (1768)17. In Silesia, a book titled Organum chori choralis has been preserved in Krzeszów. It was written in 1756 by the proficient organist Father Eustachius Wagner18. Yet, a permanent practice of organ accompaniment during chant was only introduced in 1770, which was noted in the monastery's chronicle19.
However, the reception of the organ in the Cistercian Order in Silesia dates from much earlier. In the life of St. Hedwig—founder of the female Cistercian convent in Trzebnica—set down around 1300, we know that the organ was played at liturgy during canonisation solemnities in the convent on 25 August 1267. Scholars believe that it was a rather small, portable instrument20.
Unfortunately, precise information is lacking about when the first organ was installed in the Cistercian monasteries of Silesia, but we can assume that the instrument's dissemination occurred after the General Chapter's permission for its use in 1486. Rather earlier, in 1474, an organ was built in the monastery of Rudy21. On the basis of secondary literature22, we know that all Cistercian monastery churches in the Silesian province (1651-1810) possessed organs. The province's creation occurred at a time of monastery rebuilding after the destruction of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). Furnishing temples in baroque style necessitated the building of new and larger quality instruments, with prospects correspondent to interior decoration. Cistercians employed renowned organ masters as much as possible, sometimes even turning a blind eye to their different religious beliefs23. [End Page 142]
Archival documents note several organists' names, both monks and laypeople. Beginning in the second half of the seventeenth century, Cistercian monasteries of Silesia employed laypersons in this position. Organists sometimes possessed their own instruments and musical collections. Andreas Heusler (d. 1646), an organist in Lubiąż, transmitted in testament his own regal and positive organs, as well as the complete musical materials (non-extant today)24. In modern times, partial collections after the following organists have been preserved: Gedeon Riedel25, employed in Trzebnica as the organist and choir rector, his predecessor Carl Wilhelm Sedlack26, and Carl Joseph Sedlack from Old Henryków27, as well as Friedrich Wagner28, employed in Henryków in the years ca. 1767-179529.
Although the Cistercians employed organists, their ranks included many who could play the instrument; in Henryków those known for their abilities were Father Andreas Alt (1650-1688), originating from Broumov30, and Father Georg Fischer (ca. 1688-1717) from Ziębice31, as well as Father Nicolaus Falck (1716-1769), originating from Kamieniec Zębkowicki32. In Lubiąż, in the second half of the eighteenth century, two monks played on the organ: Father Sigismundus Kraus (ca. 1728-1792) from Kamieniec Ząbkowicki33 and Father Edmundus Schrötter (c. 1713-1785) from Legnica34. In Jemielnica, Father Vincentius Wieliczka (1759-1821)35, was distinguished in organ playing, and in Rudy, Father Peter Paulus Opperskalski (1730-1796)36, as well as Father Emanuel Schirmeisen [End Page 143] (1757-1818)37, who was organist at the Dominicans' in Opawa before joining the monastery. In Krzeszów, an excellent organist was Father Eustachius Wagner (d. 1782)38. Organ playing was not limited to choir monks; in the seventeenth century, documentation in Kamieniec indicates organist Brother Elias Beckerdt (17th c.)39, was a lay brother.
Organ-playing monks filled the monastic functions of cantors and regents of the choir. Their abilities would also be used in lower-ranking events held at the monastery. Unfortunately, organ music performed in Silesian Cistercian monasteries has not survived.
The third and latest musical office (after the cantor and organist) introduced by the Cistercians was the function of regens chori figuralis—director of the musical choir performing figural music, i.e., other than Gregorian chant, thus polyphonic, vocal-instrumental, and instrumental music. The positions' institution answered to a long-time musical practice that had already diverged from monastic rule. In the second half of the seventeenth century, the Cistercian General Chapter upheld its prohibition of figural music in liturgy, while indicating Gregorian monody as the sole proper liturgical music40.
Despite this regulation, figural music played an increasing role in the life of individual monasteries. The only testimony to those transformations in many Cistercian centres in seventeenth-century Silesia, given the lack of surviving musical sources, remain inscriptions of normative nature, prohibiting the introduction of musical "novelties" into liturgy, or allowing them under well-defined circumstances. Already in 1570, the inspector to the Cistercian monastery in Krzeszów set down a total prohibition of instrumental music performance41. More than half a century later (1628) in Henryków, figural music was permitted at Eucharist in the most important holidays; conventional Mass would however be necessarily sung in chant42. But in the late seventeenth century, it was not possible to scrupulously fulfill those rulings. The powerful need for theatralisation and acting on the senses in baroque culture intruded not only into the principles of monastic interiors' modest decoration, but also the liturgy, whose essential mode of expression was music. Gregorian chant, particularly on holidays, gathering the faithful, made way for vocalinstrumental music, more suitable for public ceremonies in the new baroque interiors.
A compromise solution, allowing both to keep the prescriptions of the rule, and perform polyphonic music, was to first hold a Mass with chant, and only then a solemn one, with figural music. Such practice was permitted during an inspection of the Silesian province in 1683 by the Vicar General, Abbot of Krzeszów, Bernard Rosa, who wrote: "Since song other than chant is prohibited by the General Chapter, let there henceforth never be a main Mass with it on holidays, without an earlier Mass chanted by all, so that [End Page 144] the responsibility to the rule be fulfilled43. Abbot Rosa's recommendations on music were aimed at reconciling the Cistercian General Chapter's prohibitions, and the already old practice of figural music in Silesian Cistercian centres.
Musical manuscripts with figural music in seventeenth-century monastic use have not survived, and their inventories have not been found44. Today, information about collections lost to modern times comes from Lubiąż and Rudy. As remarked above, the monastery in Lubiąż received musical materials after the organist Andreas Heusler, who died in 1646. In turn, a note in Rudy informs us that musical materials and instruments were obtained for the monastery by Father Augustinus Alberti (1650-1736)45. Information about the musical activity of Silesian Cistercians is found in chronicles, catalogues of monks, and registers of the deceased. Friedrich Lucae mentions in his chronicle that in 1673, he participated in a festival Mass held in Lubiąż by the abbot to the sound of trumpets and timpani46. In Henryków, at least two monks excelled on the trumpet: Father Georgius Hocke (d. 1679) and Father Guillelmus Rotter (d. 1680)47; another fine musician was Father Alanus Vogt (d. 1685)48, a monk who for several years stayed in the monastery of Krzeszów, returning to Henryków in 1677. Lay brothers were also occupied with music in Rudy, e.g., Josephus Plaschke (d. 1680)49, and Melchior Wenger (vows ca. 1683-d. before 1704), who besides being a musician was also a composer50. The best-known Cistercian from Jemielnica was Abbot and composer Johannes Nucius (1556-1620). Another abbot of this monastery, Father Martin Versius (17th c.)51, was a singer and instrumentalist; also distinguished in music was Prior Ludwig Bergel (d. 1673)52. Two musician monks from this monastery added splendour in Gliwice to the First Mass held in 1702 by Canon Josef Jacob Ignaz, Count Paczynński of Tenczyn53. In Rudy, Father Robert Brzezansky and [End Page 145] others were proficient in music; in 1701, the former taught music to the Norbertines of Czarnowąsy54. In some monasteries, mention of lay musicians have been preserved55. Connected in this capacity with Lubiąż was Michael Dämell (d. 1633)56, and with Henryków, Joannes Schwartz (d. 1611)57, an instrumentalist musician. The custom of employing external lay musicians for the more important solemn occasions is testified in the eighteenth century's first quarter in the monastery of Rudy58.
A testimony of figural music becoming established in practice is the new monastic office connected with polyphonic and vocal-instrumental music. From the second half of the seventeenth century, monks in the Cistercian monasteries of Silesia were designated to lead the chapel ensemble. This function was termed regens chori figuralis; initially, the name cantor figuralis was also used. The first distinction between the two types of ensemble is found in a biographical note on the monk, Father Elias Tschöpe from Henryków, who died in 1681: "Father Elias Tschöpe from Lądek, monk and priest, a very hardworking man, primary musician with a superb voice, tireless cantor both in chant and figural music, and until recently a pious sermoniser, died in his youth"59. In the remaining monasteries, the first noted regents of chapel ensembles were monks living at the turn of the eighteenth century60. Rather often in the early eighteenth century, both functions—cantor and regens chori figuralis—were entrusted to one monk. In documents, he was referred to as a director of both choirs—regens utriusque chori or cantor utriusque chori—chant and figural. This double function was filled, for example, by Caspar Raff (1683-1738)61, Amandus Heinisch (1663-1722)62, Balthasar Seyler (1680-1720)63 in Lubiąż, Florianus Mitschke (1716-1760)64 in Jemielnica, and Augustinus Alberti (1650-1736)65 in Rudy. Monks filling both functions were responsible for the entirety of music performed in the monastery: chant and vocal-instrumental music, music connected with the Mass, the Liturgy of the Hours, and accompanying important monastic events, such as monks' [End Page 146] vows, First Masses, selections of consecutive abbots, funerals of monks, and music accompanying other religious services, recreation, and guest visits.
Musical Practice in the Silesian Cistercian Province in the Eighteenth Century
A unique source allowing a glimpse into the everyday musical practice in the monastery is a journal from the monastery of Rudy in the years 1716-174666. Sadly, no similar source has survived from any other monastery, but the musical manuscripts originating there are convergent with the practice described in the Journal of the Monastery in Rudy. Daily liturgy in the monastery of Rudy was read or chanted with organ. Solemn occasions and holidays featured the performance of figural music; the sole musical testimony of this practice is a manuscript with a vocal-instrumental setting of the ordinarium of the Mass by Joseph Porsch67. Masses are also found in the collections of remaining monasteries, but only in several cases is the liturgical designation of the work noted on the title page. Compositions survive that are designated for the feast days of St. Bernard of Clairveaux, St. Joseph (patron of brotherhoods active in Cistercian monasteries gathering populous believers), St. Charles Borromeo, Saints Philip and James the Apostles, and Saints Fabian and Sebastian. Furthermore, the Journal of the Monastery in Rudy notes a range of other solemnly celebrated holidays—besides those mentioned above—which used figural music, including St. Matthew's (25 February), St. Benedict's (21 March), St. Stephen Harding's (16 July), St. Mary Magdalene's (22 July), St. Matthias' (4 October), All Saints' (1 November), St. Martin's (12 November), St. Cecilia's (22 November), St. Barbara's (4 December), and St. Thomas' (21 December). Easter and Corpus Christi were celebrated in Rudy with the utmost solemnity. In the monastery of Lubiąż the beautiful music accompanying this occasion enchanted Christian Weiss on his travels through Silesia in 179468. Oftentimes, the pages of the Rudy journal note a figural music performance of the Vespers. This is also how Vespers were celebrated in Trzebnica, as testified by two fully-extant cycles of this service69, and in Lubiąż as well as Henryków, where settings of Psalm 110 and the Magnificat are preserved70. The monastic journal also describes the practice of combining chant singing with figural music performance during a single liturgy71. In such cases, an opening instrumental work was performed—a so-called intrada with trumpets and timpani—followed by vocal-instrumental singing in the Offertory, after the Elevation and Agnus Dei, while the remaining parts of the Mass were chanted. Musical manuscripts containing offertories and motets performed in the same place, have been preserved in especially large numbers in Lubiąż and Trzebnica. These are various compositions, ranging from singleto multi-sectional works with a cantata architecture. Serving as examples are the oldest manuscripts from Lubiąż copied by Regent Caspar Raff (1683-1738), with offertories by Italian composers such as Nicola Fago (1677-1745), Francesco Feo (1691-1761), Francesco Mancini (1672-1737), and Domenico [End Page 147] Natale Sarri (1679-1744)72. For Trzebnica, a rather large number of offertories by Czech composers were copied, including music by František Xaver Brixi (1732-1771), and in particular, Joannes Lohelius (1724-1788). Following the Agnus Dei, i.e., during Communion (but also in the place of the Gradual), arias designed for solo voices were performed; in the eighteenth century, these were quite often contrafacta of operatic arias by the most popular composers active in European courts. In the Lubiąż collection, nearly half of the preserved repertoire are such contrafacta, mainly by Johann Adolf Hasse (1699-1783) and Carl Heinrich Graun (1703-1759), as well as other composers.
Yet, no transmissions of instrumental intradas exist today. Perhaps this term concealed instrumental pieces, sonatas, or symphonies; genres which are also not extant from Cistercian collections presently kept at the University of Warsaw Library. A manuscript with the symphony of an unidentified composer by the name of Franz Faber with a provenance note from the monastery of Rudy is found in the Paulines' collection in Częstochowa73. However, a number of symphonies have been preserved in Krzeszów74. Instrumental works may also have been performed outside the liturgy, during recreation or guest visits. The inventory of the Cistercians in Osek dated to 1706 lists instrumental works in the group "Taffel-Musik"75.
At the end of the day, Cistercian monks sung the antiphon Salve regina at the Liturgy of the Hours, the extant musical manuscripts transmitting a number of this antiphon's vocal-instrumental settings from the monasteries of Lubiąż, Jemielnica, Rudy, Trzebnica, and Krzeszów.
Besides at Mass and the Liturgy of the Hours—especially Vespers—vocal-instrumental music was performed at various types of services; musical settings of the Loreto, Sacred Heart of Jesus, and St. John Nepomucene litanies have been preserved in collections from Lubiąż76, Trzebnica77, and Kamieniec78. A catalogue of manuscripts preserved in Krzeszów lists, in addition to the above, litanies to St. Anne, St. Joseph, St. Mary Magdalene, and the Blessed Sacrament79. They were performed on the liturgical feast day of the given saint, e.g., in Rudy, a vocal-instrumental litany on the feast of St. Cecilia, patron of music, preceded by an instrumental intrada80. A very solemn litany to St. John Nepomucene was performed in Rudy in 1731; as many as ten violinists participated in the event81. Moreover, the Journal of the Monastery of Rudy notes litanies performed at wedding ceremonies of the local aristocracy82 and at burials83, as well as a visit by the Bishop of Wrocław84. [End Page 148]
In contrast to the Eucharist and Liturgy of the Hours, where the compulsory language was Latin, other services allowed the use of musical works in vernacular languages, surviving musical sources also transmitting works in German. These were most often arias destined for Advent, Christmas, and Lent. An example is Caspar Raff's Cantus Eucharisticus, an aria composed in Lubiąż, available for performance, e.g., during the exposition of the Holy Sacrament85. The tradition of performing oratorios at the Tomb of the Lord was linked to the time of Paschal Triduum. An oratorio with a German text has survived in Lubiąż86, with a Latin text in Jemielnica87, and in Krzeszów, with both compositional varieties88. Christmas oratorios were also performed here89.
Another Christmastime tradition was the singing of carols. The only trace of this practice are inscriptions in the Journal of the Monastery of Rudy, where carolling at the monastery was done to the accompaniment of various instruments, often during mealtime90. In Lubiąż, a composition with the text of the antiphon Nolite timere has survived91. The text is drawn directly from the second chapter of the Gospel According to Luke (Shepherds at the Cradle, verses 9-14). The piece is designed for two choirs, while the names of characters—"Angelus 1mi chori", "Angelus altero choro"—suggest there may have been roles performed. Most likely, the music served to dramatise a Nativity play (praesepium). It is the only trace of this practice in musical sources from Lubiąż.
Music also accompanied various moments of monastic life. A ceremony lasting several days after an abbot's death, and the selection of a new one, has been recorded in the Journal of the Monastery of Rudy92. Several instances of Requiem Masses at this time were solemnly celebrated with figural music. During the vote and elections, a votive Mass to the Holy Spirit was held—as duly written down—"with trumpets and timpani". In Rudy, the anniversary of choosing a new abbot was always festively celebrated with figural music, or with chant and instrumental intradas. The performance of figural music at Requiem Masses is testified by surviving musical sources in Henryków, Trzebnica, and Krzeszów. This type of Mass was also sung for the departed from outside the monastery, such as benefactors of the order and members of the local aristocracy.
Especially festive celebrations in the monasteries were held yearly on the name days of superiors, in connection with the liturgical memorial of their patron saint. On such occasions, superiors from other monasteries were invited. The celebration began with liturgy, followed by a less formal meeting, with music sometimes composed specially for it. Silesian Cistercians would also receive invitations to the name days of befriended abbots; e.g., in 1768, the abbots of Henryków and Rudy, present on the name day of the Benedictine monastery abbot in Broumov and Břevnov, Friedrich Grundmann, listened to František Xaver Brixi's cantata Corona dignitatis senectus93. A testimony of festively celebrated name days in the Cistercian female convent of Trzebnica are six manuscripts with [End Page 149] dedications offered on the occasion of Abbess Bernarda Paczyńska's name da94 (Figure 1). The donors were monastery choir rectors. The musical sources originate in the years 1767-1789, each containing a Mass for St. Bernard's Day.
After the festive liturgy, the guests were treated with a meal, during which music was often performed, usually cantatas in the specific genre of applausus musicus or congratulatory cantata95. This type of composition was also performed at other occasions. Detailed descriptions survive of celebrations held in Trzebnica in 1803 on the monastery's 600th Jubilee, and in 1805 on the 50th Jubilee of Abbess Dominika von Gillern's monastic vows96. Music played an important role in both events. German lyrics have survived from a cantata performed in 180397. Two compositions in this genre have been preserved in musical sources of the Silesian Cistercians. The first cantata was probably composed in the monastery of Jemielnica for the abbot's name day; however, the lacking title page prevents a reconstruction of the circumstances of its performance. The Latin text refers directly to the monastery of Jemielnica and its superior. It is a typical congratulatory cantata98. The second work was composed in Lubiąż in 1744 for Abbot Constantin Beyer99. Its Latin text is strongly set in the realities of the monastic life, and the humorous plot makes direct reference to the theme of music and the ensemble active in Lubiąż.
After prayer and work, the monks had time for rest. Recreation would be accompanied by music, both instrumental and vocal accompanied by an instrument. Monks in Rudy also made music during free time outdoors, e.g., recreation in the forest100, accompanied by music on the flute. Even when they spent time farther away, they would bring instruments to their country house101.
It is not surprising that music was, in addition, a special way of paying respect to guests visiting the monastery. The journal often notes home concerts given on visits by various persons, particularly the local aristocracy, sometimes connected to the monks by common interests102. Among them, Baron Carl Friedrich von Reiswitz possessed his own chapel ensemble, which he would sometimes bring to the monastery; one time, his organist was invited to play in the monastery when the musician employed by the Cistercians was too [End Page 150]
inebriated to play103. A brief mention also exists about Cistercian concerts in Lubiąż104. Monks in Rudy hosted both laypersons and other monks. Each solemn feast (e.g., St. Joseph's, St. Bernard's, and others) gathered many guests there, when external musicians were employed from several nearby communities. It seems that in the baroque era, [End Page 151] each occasion, whether religious or not, was appropraite to celebrate with music; for example, a week after the truce that followed the Austro-Turkish War on 28 July 1718, the Cistercians in Rudy note a "joyful day" expressed by play on trumpets, timpani, and other instruments, due not only to the peace with the Turks, but also the birth of aforementioned Baron Reiswitz's son105.
The Journal of the Monastery of Rudy is a unique source that shows the monastery as more than a place for contemplation and prayer; it also pictures a centre brimming with life, whose inhabitants—owing to the religious order's community and pastoral work, as well as economic and religious matters—lived in unity with fellow brothers in the Cistercian province and with local communities. The monks were in constant motion, always travelling to other monasteries, subordinated parishes, befriended local residences and homes. The reason for some travels were the musical abilities they possessed; e.g., Father Robert from Rudy was asked to add his forces to Baron Welczek's chapel ensemble in Łabędy106.
The life led by monks in Rudy was similar to monks in other abbeys; all Silesian Cistercian monasteries had large possessions and households, as well as numerous contacts in local communities. All those connections build a map of the monastery's cultural contacts. Musical sources very seldom transmit information, such as that found in a Lubiąż manuscript: "This Mass for the Lubiąż choir was copied by Father Augustinus Bissek, a monk from Jemielnica, subprior, cantor and regens chori there, in the year 1781"107. Thus, the map of contacts shows, on the one hand, the area of the monastery's influence, and on the other, the potential places for obtaining repertoire for its chapel ensemble.
However, owing to its membership in the European community of religious orders, monasteries of the Silesian province could also seek inspiration in distant and well-known Cistercian monasteries. Occasions for sharing experiences were the abbots' travels to Cistercian chapters in the order's main abbey in Cîteaux, France, where the Cistercians traveled nine times during the province's existence108. Detailed journals have survived from travels undertaken in the year 1699 by Lubiąż Abbot Ludwik Bauch with subprior Martin, the Abbot of Rudy Bernard Czernek with his secretary Józef Strachwitz, and in 1768 by Abbot Constantin Haschke from Henryków and his secretary Father Bartolomaeus Sedlack, as well as Abbot of Rudy Augustin Renner.
The voyage from Rudy to Cîteaux took three months (the way back was one month). The itinerary led through important cultural centres (also political and commercial)109. The monks usually stayed overnight in monasteries. In 1768, the route from Rudy led through Silesian abbeys in Henryków, Kamieniec, Bardo, and Krzeszów. The delegation there was entertained three days, owing to the installation of a new abbot. On the second day of the celebrations, an opera was staged, while on the third day, the chapter-bound delegation was bid goodbye with another composition110. It is worth mentioning that the sole [End Page 152] surviving "musical" source linked to the installation of a new abbot in Silesia is circumstantial, a printed libretto from the installation of Abbot Lucas Springer in Lubiąż in 1769111. I shall further list only the most prominent places to which visits were paid. In Prague, the Cistercians from Rudy met with the Benedictine abbot of Břevnov, where they dined to a musical concert (and on the return trip, musicians were called upon from Prague to perform a concert for them)112. After touring the Prague Cathedral, in the bishop's residence they partook of a meal with the superiors of the greatest Prague monasteries (Knights of the Cross with the Red Star, Canons Regular of the Lateran, Premostratensians, and Benedictines) where chapels were active. A longer, three-day stop was made in the Cistercian monastery in Plasy. Here, the monks participated in a solemn Palm Sunday liturgy. Easter was spent by the Cistercians of Rudy and Henryków with the brothers' in Waldsassen. The journal includes a lengthy description of the Triduum Paschal liturgy, indicating which parts were read, which sung, those performed only with the organ, and those with other instruments113. Similar remarks about music were made on the return trip in the Cistercian monastery in Lucelle; it was noted that vocal-instrumental music was performed there only by the monks114. However, the biggest impression was made by the Cistercian monastery in Salem, with the journal recognising its monastic discipline and the exceptional musical skills of the monks. The guest meals were accompanied by music on the trumpets, timpani, and other instruments115. The situation was similar in the Cistercian monastery in Zbraslav116.
During the long voyage, visits were also made to monasteries of other orders and to major cities, where purchases were made in transit117. The climax of the trip was of course Cîteaux. The visit there usually lasted around two weeks. The time was divided between council and liturgy. Everything was described in great detail in travel journals. The observations served as a point of reference for the home practice of musical liturgy118.
In travel journals, the Silesian Cistercians always praised the abbots' hospitality in acquainting their guests with monasteries, scriptoriums, and libraries, as well as preparing supper with music that lasted into the night. The hosts also helped in practical matters, such as borrowing horses or purchasing food supplies. This helped to build friendly relations among the abbots. The travels were opportunities for observation of the home musical practice of the hosts', enriching the travellers' knowledge and serving the exchange of information and experiences. The Cistercians returned from travel with various kinds of purchases and gifts, among which we cannot exclude manuscripts and musical prints. [End Page 153]
The travels described in the journals are proof of the extended cultural contacts of Silesian Cistercians, while the preserved manuscripts are a direct testimony of the rich musical practice in the monasteries. They were comprised of both the local, nearby Silesian traditions, and the order's musical culture in Europe. [End Page 154]
Ewa Hauptmann-Fischer works in Music Department of the University of Warsaw Library, cataloging early Silesian music documents for the International Inventory of Musical Sources (RISM). She studied musicology at the University of Warsaw and graduated in 2003 with an MA thesis entitled 'Eighteenth-Century Music of the Cistercian abbey in Pelplin: The Catalogue and a Review of the Collection' (published in Studia Pelplinńskie 37 : 13-180). Currently Ms. Hauptmann-Fischer is working on her Ph.D. thesis on the music culture of the Cistercians in Silesia in the eighteenth century. Her main field of interest are studies in sources, particularly monastic collections.
1. Anna Galar, W europejskiej wspólnocie cysterskiej: udział cystersów z historycznych ziem polskich w Kapitułach Generalnych w Cîteaux (XII-XVIII w.). Cistercium Mater Nostra, Studia et documenta, 2 (Kraków: Societas Vistulana, 2014), 361.
2. Ibid., 360.
3. Andrzej Kozieł, "Doskonała szkoła malarstwa czyli słów kilka o zespole obrazów Michaela Willmanna z dawnego kościoła klasztornego cystersów w Lubiążu", in Opactwo cystersów w Lubiążu i artyści, ed. Andrzej Kozieł (Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, 2008), 243.
4. Agnieszka Drożdżewska, Życie muzyczne na Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim w XIX i w I połowie XX wieku: edukacja muzyczna—działalność naukowa—ruch koncertowy. Musicologica Wratislaviensia, 7 (Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, 2012), 49, 273. In 1811, a commission was called for this purpose under the direction of Johann Gustav Gottlieb Büsching.
5. Johann Gustav Gottlieb Büsching, Acta manualia die Uebernahme der Bibliotheken, Kunstsammlungen & Archive in den aufgehobenen Klöstern Schlesiens betreffend, PL-WRu, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark IV F 267, vol. 5, 58-59.
6. Helena Szwejkowska, Biblioteka klasztoru cystersek w Trzebnicy. Śląskie Prace Bibliograficzne i Bibliotekoznawcze, 1 (Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolinńskich, 1955), 80.
7. Rudolf Walter, Musikgeschichte des Zisterzienserklosters Grüssau: von Anfang des 18. Jahrhunderts bis zur Aufhebung im Jahre 1810. Musik des Ostens, 15 (Kassel, New York: Barenreiter, 1996), 72.
8. Agnieszka Drożdżewska, Życie muzyczne na Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim, 49.
9. Ernst Kirsch, Die Bibliothek des Musikalischen Instituts bei der Universität Breslau. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis von dem Anteil Schlesiens an den musikalischen Strömungen des 16.-18. Jahrhunderts, (Breslau: Hunds-felder Stadblatt, 1922).
10. Agnieszka Drożdżewska, Życie muzyczne na Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim, 286.
11. Rudolf Walter, Musikgeschichte des Zisterzienserklosters Grüssau.
12. Grzegorz Joachimiak, "Rękopiśmienne tabulatury z I połowy XVIII wieku ze zbiorów cystersów z Krzeszowa. Repertuar - praktyka wykonawcza - mecenat artystyczny" (Ph.D. diss., Uniwersytet Wrocławski, 2016).
13. The storage session was conducted as part of the project "Dziedzictwo kulturowe po klasztorach skasowanych na ziemiach dawnej Rzeczypospolitej oraz na Śląsku w XVIII i XIX w.: losy, znaczenie, inwentaryzacja" [Cultural Legacy of the Monasteries dissolved in the former Polish Commonwealth and in Silesia during the 18th and 19th centuries: the fate, importance, inventory"] (11H 11 021280), realised in the Minister of Science and Higher Education program titled "Narodowy Program Rozwoju Humanistyki" [National Program for the Development of Humanities] in the years 2012-2016.
14. Lists of cantors, regents, organists, and other musicians are planned as appendices to the forthcoming catalogue.
15. H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4266, f. 56 r.
16. Rituale Cisterciense (Paris, 1689), 26-28. (Chapter XIV De Organis).
17. A number of such books have appeared in print, cf. Rudolf Walter, Musikgeschichte des Zisterzienserklosters Grüssau, 28.
18. Eustachius Wagner, Organum Chori Choralis, 1756, PL-WRu Music Department, shelf mark Akc, 1994/84.
19. Rudolf Walter, Musikgeschichte des Zisterzienserklosters Grüssau, 26.
20. Rudolf Walter, "Zur Geschichte der schlesischen Orgelmusik", in: Geistliche Musik in Schlesien, ed. Lothar Hoffmann-Erbrecht (Dülmen: Laumann-Verlag, 1988), 36-37.
21. Ludwig Burgemeister, Der Orgelbau in Schlesien (Frankfurt am Main: Verlag Wolfgang Weidlich, 1973), 19.
22. Cf. entries having to do with the particular monasteries in Schlesisches Musiklexikon, ed. Lothar Hoffmann-Erbrecht (Augsburg: Wißner, 2001). See also Ludwig Burgemeister, Der Orgelbau in Schlesien (Frankfurt am Main: Verlag Wolfgang Weidlich, 1973); Rudolf Walter, "Zur Geschichte der schlesischen Orgelmusik"; Wilhelm Pfitzner, Versuch einer Geschichte des vormaligen Fürstl. Cisterzienser-Stiftes Heinrichau bei Münsterberg in Schlesien (Breslau, 1846), 165; Gregor Frömrich, Kurze Geschichte der ehemaligen Cistercienser Abtey Kamenz in Schlesien (Glatz, 1817), 117; August Potthast, Geschichte der ehemaligen Cistercienserabtei Rauden in Oberschlesien: Festgabe zur sechsten Säcularfeier ihrer Gründung (Löbschütz: Verlag von Rudolf Bauer, 1858), 78.
23. For example, the Lutheran Michael Engler the Younger built organs for the Cistercians in Krzeszów, cf. Marcin Zgliński, Nowożytny prospekt organowy i jego twórcy (Warszawa: Instytut Sztuki Polskiej Akademii Nauk, 2012), 341.
24. "Item obiit Andreas Heusler organista lubensis ao 1646, qui dedit regale, positivum et omnia sua musicalia", cf. PL-WRu, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark IV F 214, f. 62 v, cf. Rudolf Walter, "Leubus, Zisterzienserkloster", in Schlesisches Musiklexikon, 421. Mind the erroneous death date (1746).
25. Nearly all manuscripts obtained from Trzebnica are signed with Riedel's name or his monogram.
26. PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 4458. More on this organist and other members of his family employed by the Cistercians may be found in Ewa Hauptman-Fischer, "Regens chori figuralis Caspar Raff (1683-1738)", Muzyka 1 (2018): 48-74, at 52.
27. PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 4343, RM 4604.
28. PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 4482.
29. PL-WRk, shelf mark 80c, Book of Weddings from St. Andrew's Parish in Henryków, 24; PL-WRk, shelf mark 80c, Book of Baptisms from St. Andrew's Parish in Henryków, 66, 74, 75, 171; PL-WRk, shelf mark 80d, Book of Baptisms from St. Andrew's Parish in Henryków [unnumbered page] inscriptions under the following dates (day/month/year): 3.08.1768, 12.11.1771, 10.12.1771, 20.03.1772, 6.03.1774, 29.08.1778, 16.07.1780; PLWRk, shelf mark 80e, Book of Baptisms from St. Andrew's Parish in Henryków [unnumbered page] inscriptions under the dates 9.08.1781, 21.09.1783, 25.08.1792, 29.03.1794, 8.09.1795.
30. H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4246, f. 3 r, H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4266, f. 10 r.
31. H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4246, f. 15 v, H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4266, f. 17 v, Rudolf Walter, "Heinrichau, Zisterzienserstift", in: Schlesisches Musiklexikon, 267.
32. H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4266, f. 23 v; Rudolf Walter, "Heinrichau, Zisterzienserstift", in: Schlesisches Musiklexikon, 267; Kornel Bárdos, "Zum Musikleben in Zirz im 18. Jahrhundert", Analecta Cisterciensia 38 (1982), 76-99, at 86.
33. Nomina Fratrum Lubensium PL-WRk, shelf mark V 5, [unnumbered page]; Rudolf Walter, "Leubus, Zisterzienserkloster", in: Schlesisches Musiklexikon, 421, name given without birth or death date.
34. "Organaeda ritus antiqui", cf. Nomina Fratrum Lubensium, PL-WRk, shelf mark V 5 [unnumbered page]. This phrase refers to the old manner of playing; perhaps the issue is an inability to accompany chant, which was the only significant novelty in the Cistercians' musical practice during Schrötter's lifetime. See also, PL-WRu Manuscript Department, shelf mark IV F 214, f. 52 r, Rudolf Walter, "Leubus, Zisterzienserkloster", in: Schlesisches Musiklexikon, 421.
35. PL-WRk, shelf mark V 26 h, f. 81 r; August Weltzel, Das fürstliche Cisterzienserstift Himmelwitz, 146, 159.
36. "Virtuosus Organista Choro Raudensi multum proficuus erat", cf. PL-WRk, shelf mark V 26 g, f. 22 v.
37. PL-WRk, shelf mark V 26 g, f. 30 v.; Heinrich Grüger, "Die schlesischen Ordengeistlichen bei der Säkularisation der Klöster (1810)", in De Ecclesia Silesiae. Festschrift zum 25jährigen Bestehe der Apostolischen Visitatur Breslau, ed. Hubert Unverricht, Gundolf Keil (Sigmaringen: Jan Thorbecke Verlag, 1997), 228.
38. In addition, he was a composer of vocal-instrumental works. Cf. Rudolf Walter, Musikgeschichte des Zisterzienserklosters Grüssau, 61-62.
39. PL-WRu Manuscript Department, shelf mark IV F 216, f. 22 v.
40. "Ubi autem cantatur, de modo cantandi ordinare possunt Superior et Cantor prout et quando viderint expedire: sed it ut antiqua "Forma" cantandi a B. Bernardo tradita, nostrisque Breviariis inserta firmiter teneatur: Sincopationibus, et quocumque cantu figurali seu musicali, penitus interdictis, tam in Missa et Processionibus quam in omnibus Officii partibus", cf. Rituale Cisterciense, 25-26.
41. "Musica vero instrumenta nulli Sacerdoti neve non Sacerdoti permittantur", cf. Ernst Kirsch, Die Bibliothek des Musikalischen Instituts bei der Universität Breslau, 27.
42. Cf. Rudolf Walter, Musikgeschichte des Zisterzienserklosters Grüssau, 18.
43. "Quia cantus figuralis a Capitulo Generali prohibetur, hinc in festivitatibus Missa Major nunquam habeatur, cum musica figurali, nisi prius una choraliter, fuerit decantata, ut tali modo obligationi ordinis satisfiat […]", cf. PL-WRu OR, shelf mark IV F 209, 116, cf. also Ernst Kirsch, Die Bibliothek des Musikalischen Instituts bei der Universität Breslau, 33.
44. Awaiting detailed preparation studies and cataloguing in the RISM database are approximately twentyseven musical prints of monastic provenance from Henryków, Kamieniec Ząbkowicki, Krzeszów, and Lubiąż. However, it is unknown to which extent these prints were used by the Cistercians. Moreover, it appears that all Cistercian monasteries in Silesia must have possessed prints with compositions by the Abbot of Jemielnica, Johannes Nucius (1556-1620), but their presence can be confirmed only in Henryków, see Aleksandra Patalas, Catalogue of Early Music Prints from the Collections of the Former Preußische Staatsbibliothek in Berlin, Kept at the Jagiellonian Library in Cracow (Kraków: Musica Iagellonica, 1999), 254; and Johann Gustav Gottlieb Büsching, Acta manualia, PL-WRu, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark IV F 267, vol. 5, f. 58.
45. "Cantor et Regens Chori per multos annos existens alios, in cantu chorali praesertim erudiis. Industria sua non solum musicalia, sed et instrumenta multa procuravit". PL-WRk, shelf mark V 26 g, f. 6 r-6v.
46. Cf. Friedrich Lucae, Schlesiens curieuser Denckwürdigkeiten oder vollkommener Chronica von Ober und Niederschlesien (Franckfurt am Maeyn: in Verlegung Friedrich Knochen Buchhändler, 1689), 1168.
47. Cf. H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4246, f. 5 v, f. 13 v, H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4266, f. 8 r.
48. H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4246, f. 23 v; Rudolf Walter, "Heinrichau, Zisterzienserstift", in: Schlesisches Musiklexikon, 267.
49. H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4246, f. 27 v; Rudolf Walter, "Heinrichau, Zisterzienserstift", in: Schlesisches Musiklexikon, 267.
50. Cf. H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4246, f. 31 r, H-Bn, OR, shelf mark Fol Lat 4266, f. 12 r.
51. Augustin Weltzel, Das fürstliche Cisterzienserstift Himmelwitz, 50. Abbot's office in the period 1624-1631.
52. Cf. Augustin Weltzel, Das fürstliche Cisterzienserstift Himmelwitz, 79.
53. Cf. Augustin Weltzel, Das fürstliche Cisterzienserstift Himmelwitz, 88.
54. August Potthast, Geschichte der ehemaligen Cistercienserabtei Rauden in Oberschlesien, 95.
55. Names of musicians in Krzeszów, cf. Rudolf Walter, Musikgeschichte des Zisterzienserklosters Grüssau, 62-63.
56. PL-WRu, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark IV F 214, f. 61 v.
57. PL-WRu, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark IV F 217, f. 8 r.
58. Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a [unnumbered page, inscriptions under the dates 20.09.1726 and 20.08.1726].
59. „P. Elias Tschöpe Landecensis Monachus et Sacerdos, vir laboriosissimus, Musicus fundamentalis, ob praeclaram vocem Cantor indefesus Choralis, et Figuralis, et Concionator pie adhuc juvenis mortuus", see H-Bn, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark Fol Lat 4246, f. 23 v, Fol Lat 4266, f. 11 r.
60. Cf. Ewa Hauptman-Fischer, "Regens chori figuralis Caspar Raff (1683-1738)", 50. The situation was similar in the orchestrally-renowned Cistercian monastery of Osek, Bohemia. Its first noted regents were Father E. J. Janka (1693-1742) and Father F. J. Wenzel (1693-1759), cf. Barbara Ann Renton, The Musical Culture of Eighteenth-Century Bohemia, with Special Emphasis on the Music Inventories of Osek and the Knights of the Cross (New York: City University of New York, 1990), 207. In turn, the Benedictine monastery of Břevnov noted its first choir regent in 1692, cf. Rudolf Klinkhammer, Die Figuralmusik in Břevnov und Braunau zur Zeit des Priors und Abtes Friedrich Grundmann (1730-1772) (Erzabtei St. Ottilien 1993), 412.
61. Ewa Hauptman-Fischer, "Regens chori figuralis Caspar Raff (1683-1738)", 56.
62. PL-WRu, Manuscripts Department, shelf mark IV F 209, 127, IV F 214, f. 72 r, IV F 215, 141, Nomina Fratrum Lubensium, PL-WRk, shelf mark V 5 [unnumbered page].
63. PL-WRu Manuscripts Department, R, shelf mark IV F 214, f. 52 r, IV F 215, 101, Nomina Fratrum Lubensium, PL-WRk shelf mark V 5, [unnumbered page].
64. PL-WRk, shelf mark V 26 h, f. 58 r, f. 63 r, f. 64 r, f. 65 r, f. 66 r, f. 67 r, f. 68 r, f. 71 r.
65. PL-WRk, shelf mark V 26 g, f. 6 r-6v.
66. Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a.
67. PL-Wu, Music Department, no shelfmark, see RISM A/II: 300512924.
68. Christian Weiss, Wanderungen in Sachsen, Schlesien, Glatz und Böhmen (Leipzig: Sommer, 1796), 1:138.
69. PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 4253/2, RM 4254.
70. In Lubiąż, np. PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 5488. The oldest manuscript from the monastery in Henryków, containing a setting of Dixit dominus, is presently found in Berlin, cf. RISM A/II: 469042800.
71. E.g., Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 23, January 1717: "fuit missa choralo-figuralis cum Intradis et duobus cantibus, ad offertorium et post Agnus".
72. For more on the splendid repertoire from the first half of the eighteenth century in Lubiąż, see Ewa Hauptman-Fischer, "Regens chori figuralis Caspar Raff (1683-1738)", 55-66.
73. RISM A/II: 300000307, see Paweł Podejko, Katalog tematyczny rękopisów i druków muzycznych kapeli wokalno-instrumentalnej na Jasnej Górze. Studia Studia Claromontana; 12 (Kraków: Wydawnictwo OO. Paulinów, 1992), 172.
74. Rudolf Walter, Musikgeschichte des Zisterzienserklosters Grüssau, 341-350.
75. Barbara Ann Renton, The Musical Culture of Eighteenth-Century Bohemia, 259.
76. PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 5521.
77. PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 4345, RM 4434, RM 5338, RM 4675, RM 4740.
78. PL-Wu, Music Department, no shelf mark, see RISM A/II: 300512923.
79. Litanies by various and anonymous authors in Krzeszów, in Rudolf Walter, Musikgeschichte des Zisterzienserklosters Grüssau.
80. Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 22.11.1730.
81. Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 15.05.1731, before the saint's liturgical feast.
82. Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 21.08.1719.
83. Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 26.04.1723.
84. Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 23.09.1719.
85. PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 6268.
86. PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 5329.
87. PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 4186.
88. Rudolf Walter, Musikgeschichte des Zisterzienserklosters Grüssau, 228-231, 336-339.
89. Rudolf Walter, Musikgeschichte des Zisterzienserklosters Grüssau, 334.
90. Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 29.12.1722; 5.01.1728; 6.01.1729.
91. PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 6622.
92. Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 3-30.10.1716.
93. Rudolf Klinkhammer, Die Figuralmusik in Břevnov und Braunau, 473.
94. PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 4153, RM 4294/5, RM 4855, RM 4923, RM 4856. RM 4857. More about these manuscripts, see Ewa Hauptman-Fischer, "Musical Gifts with Dedications in Silesian Musical Manuscripts of Monastery Provenance", Polski Rocznik Muzykologiczny 14 (2016): 57-84, at 77-78.
95. A definition of the genre and an overview of surviving compositions, mostly in Austrian monasteries, was given by Robert N. Freeman, "The Applausus Musicus, or Singgedicht: A Neglected Genre of Eighteenth-Century Musical Theater", in Music in Eighteenth-century Austria, ed. Dawid Wyn Jones (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1966), 197-209, esp. 203. The article's author also points out the position of researchers who maintain that setting apart a special genre is not necessary here, and count such works in the current of "congratulatory cantatas".
96. August Kastner, Geschichte und Beschreibung des fürstlichen jungfräulichen Klosterstiftes Cistercienser Ordens in Trebnitz. Archiv für die Geschichte des Bisthums Breslau, 2 (Neisse, 1852), 234-248, 253-256.
97. See Ewa Hauptman-Fischer, "Komedia w klasztorze. Świeckie utwory okolicznościowe w tradycji śląskich cystersów", in Tradycje ślaskiej kultury muzycznej, vol. XIV, part 1, ed. Anna Granat-Janki (Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Akademii Muzycznej im. Karola Lipińskiego we Wrocławiu 2017), 154.
98. PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 5328.
99. PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 5340. For more on this composition, see Ewa Hauptman-Fischer, "Komedia w klasztorze. Świeckie utwory okolicznościowe w tradycji śląskich cystersów", 156-161.
100. Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 13.05.1717.
101. Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 13.05.1725.
102. Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 30.03.1717.
103. Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 25.04.1717.
104. Christian Weiss, Wanderungen in Sachsen, Schlesien, Glatz und Böhmen, 140.
105. Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 28.07.1718.
106. Diarium Raudense, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26 a, 29.06.1717.
107. "Hanc Missam pro Choro Lubeno descripsit Eximius P. Augustinus Bisseck professus Gemelnicensis p.t. Subprior, Cantor, et Regens Chori Figuralis ibidem Anno 1781", PL-Wu, Music Department, shelf mark RM 4882.
108. Cf. table provided in Anna Galar. W europejskiej wspólnocie cysterskiej, 364-365.
109. For detailed descriptions of travels, see: Anna Galar. W europejskiej wspólnocie cysterskiej, 400-408.
110. "Ad prandium novo D. Abbati producta fuit opera musica", "Omnes D. Abbates prandium sumpserunt in et producta est D.D. Abbatiubus peregrinatibus Cistercium opera valedictoria vere affectuosa", Diarium itineris Cisterciensis, PL-WRk, shelf mark V 26i, 13-16.03.1768, 2-3.
111. PL-WRk, shelf mark V B 4i.
112. "Post mensam producta fuit opera praestantissima Pragensibus vitruosis in subsidium vocatis", Diarium itineris Cisterciensis, PL-WRk, shelf mark V 26i, 21.03.1768, 6, 15.06.1768, 81.
113. "Matutinum mane habetur a fratribus pridie in choro musicali romano modo a musicis in choro figurali", Diarium itineris Cisterciensis, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26i, 31.03 -4.04.1768, 11-12.
114. Diarium itineris Cisterciensis, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26i, 21.05.1768, 57.
115. Diarium itineris Cisterciensis, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26i, 27-30.05.1768, 64-65.
116. Diarium itineris Cisterciensis, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26i, 11.06.1768, 79.
117. In 1699, these locations were Nurnberg, Strasburg, Augsburg, and Ratisbon, and in 1768, Nurnberg—where a tour was made of the Town Hall, Imperial Castle, municipal library, two Lutheran churches, and the Knights Templar House—moreover in Stuttgart—with a tour of the Wirtemberg Princes' castles, the theatre, and opera buildings, as well as a porcelain manufacturing plant—and Strasbourg, Basle, Augsburg, and Munich, cf. Anna Galar, W europejskiej wspólnocie cysterskiej, 401-402, 404-407.
118. Diarium itineris Cisterciensis, PL-WRk shelf mark V 26i, 1-19.05.1768, 41-55, remarks on music esp. 50-51.