The proportions of target signs produced in response to noun- and verb-target vignettes that were placed in utterance-final position, or produced with proximal joint movement, repetition, or with a base hand by individual adult homesigners, labeled as homesigner ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’, and ‘D’. All four homesigners were more likely to produce verb-target (black) signs in utterance-final position (first columns on the left, both top and bottom). All homesigners were more likely to produce verb-target signs with large movements of the proximal joints in iterable events, and three of four were also more likely to produce them in noniterable events (second columns). All homesigners produced more verb-target signs with a base hand in iterable events; there are not enough data to look at this pattern in noniterable events (fourth columns). Three of four Nicaraguan homesigners also used repetition differentially (third columns): noun-target signs (white) were more likely to be repeated than verb-target signs (black). However, this pattern was true only for noun-target signs associated with iterable events.
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[Received 9 December 2017;
revision invited 2 March 2018;
revision received 1 July 2018;
revision invited 12 August 2018;
revision received 30 October 2018;
accepted 26 November 2018]
Copyright © 2019 Natasha Abner, Molly Flaherty, Katelyn Stangl, Marie Coppola, Diane Brentari and Susan Goldin-Meadow