The proportions of target signs produced in response to noun- and verb-target vignettes that were placed in utterance-final position, or produced with proximal joint movement, repetition, or with a base hand by NSL signers. NSL signers are organized by year-of-entry cohort (C1 before 1983, C2 1984–1993, C3 1994–2003); for a depiction organized by individual year of entry, please see the supplementary materials. All cohorts of NSL signers were more likely to produce verb-target signs (black) in utterance-final position (first columns on the left, both top and bottom), with large movements of the proximal joints (second columns), and with a base hand (fourth columns). The tendencies to produce verb-target signs with movement of the proximal joints and with a base hand are stronger in cohorts 2 and 3. There was a significant main effect of iterability in repetition (third columns): all cohorts were more likely to produce iterable (top) events with repetition. Nevertheless, repetition was used differentially by signers in NSL cohorts 2 and 3, who were more likely to produce noun-target signs with repetition; NSL cohort 1 signers did not use repetition to distinguish target categories.
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[Received 9 December 2017;
revision invited 2 March 2018;
revision received 1 July 2018;
revision invited 12 August 2018;
revision received 30 October 2018;
accepted 26 November 2018]
Copyright © 2019 Natasha Abner, Molly Flaherty, Katelyn Stangl, Marie Coppola, Diane Brentari and Susan Goldin-Meadow