Under the "revolution paradigm" of existing Chinese historiography, Han Chinese intellectuals of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries are viewed as either supporting or resisting monarchical rule in Qing China (1644–1912). This article examines the implications of Guangdong intellectual Ou Jujia's (1870–1912) magnum opus, New Guangdong, for late Qing politics. New Guangdong called for Guangdong's independence from the Qing so that it could later reunite with other provinces as a federated China. Although Ou Jujia's attempts to launch an independence movement had remained marginal to the reformist and revolutionary visions of governance and national unity, he embedded provincial consciousness in the modern, Western-inspired language of federalism. By suggesting that Guangdong could become a unique model province of a reformed China, Ou Jujia defined the "province" as the basic unit of Chinese federalism and made it central to discussions of China's future in the 1900s.