To develop the following abstracts, the editorial staff searches more than 100 scientific journals, professional and organizational newsletters, conference proceedings, and other resources for information relevant to ecological restoration practice and research. Please send suggested abstract sources to the editorial staff (ERjournal@sebs.rutgers.edu).
Global Warming May Lower Thermal Barriers Against Invasive Species in Freshwater Ecosystems—A Study from Lake Constance. 2018. Hesselschwerdt, J. (RHEOS, Konstanz, Germany, firstname.lastname@example.org), and K.M. Wantzen. Science of the Total Environment 645:44–50. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.078
Invasive species are a major threat to freshwater ecosystems and climate change is leading to an increase in invasion. European freshwater communities have historically been dominated by cold-adapted species but many recent invasions have been warm-adapted species facilitated by a warming climate. In southern Germany's Lake Constance, the currently dominant native amphipod Gammarus roeselii is able to co-exist with the invasive Dikerogammarus villosus (killer shrimp) that is elsewhere altering benthic invertebrate communities. Hesselschwerdt and Wantzen performed field surveys and lab-based predation experiments to examine the mechanisms allowing co-existence between these species. Significant drivers of co-existence were low winter temperatures (below 6°C) and the presence of the alga Chara sp. both of which reduced predation by D. villosus, allowing G. roeselii survival. Artificial heating eliminated these drivers and resulted in G. roesellii extinction. Management and conservation of freshwater systems under a changing climate requires the consideration of more complex interactions that direct competition between native and invasive species.
Coastal and Marine Communities
Marine Ecosystem Restoration and Biodiversity Offset. 2018. Jacob, C. (Université de Montpellier, France, email@example.com,), A. Buffard, S. Pioch and S. Thorin. Ecological Engineering 120:585–594. doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.09.007.
Habitat loss is a primary driver of extinctions in marine habitats. To reduce the impact of human activities and development on these ecosystems, the principle of no net loss has been implemented. This principle strives to balance negative effects of a given project by taking measures to either minimize its impacts or actively restore habitat post-project. Previous analysis of the implementation of offset measures in marine environments has shown that restoration is the basis of most procedures. Jacob and colleagues investigated the relationship between the results of existing restoration techniques with offset principles to determine how effective these techniques are in meeting their requirements. The authors analyzed 155 articles addressing restoration techniques, basing their analysis on four aspects: relevance of the restoration technique for offsetting and its ecological effectiveness, causes of failure, costs of implementation, and resilience of the target ecosystem. Their analysis revealed a more-than-imperfect use of restoration techniques to offset damages produced by development. Among the most critical pitfalls was that trade-offs between approaches used to determine offset equivalencies are unclear. The authors encourage more studies examining restoration techniques to fill the knowledge gap that currently allows justifying poorly designed offset solutions on the basis of a lack of knowledge.
Ecological Literacy (Education)
Habitat Monitoring of an Endangered Asian Butterfly, Teinopalpus aureus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and Change in Local Residents' Conservation Awareness. 2018. Wang, Z. (Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, firstname.lastname@example.org). Y. Huang, X. Luo, K. Qin, R. Merz and S Zhou. Journal of Insect Conservation 22:721–729. doi:/10.1007/s10841-018-0096-2)
Teinopalpus aureus (Golden Kaiser-i-Hind) is an endangered butterfly endemic to southern China and Vietnam. Captive breeding programs have been established as a conservation measure for this species and a museum featuring the butterfly was built in China's Mt. Dayao Nature Reserve to raise awareness, but little work has been done to assess actual butterfly populations or captive breeding efficacy. [End Page 54] The authors examined whether T. aureus populations are actually low within its native range, assessed the efficacy of captive breeding programs, and interviewed visitors to Mt. Dayao Reserve to assess conservation awareness regarding the species. The authors observed high numbers of the species in the reserve (up to 31 individuals within one hour) as well as abundant host plants and found that captive breeding...