It is important for the policy makers to know what kinds of shocks are responsible for macroeconomic fluctuations or recession to formulate appropriate policy responses. This paper exploits a stylized model to identify the sources of macroeconomic and exchange rate fluctuations in the US. The model consists of a productivity equation, a demand function, an exchange rate augmented Phillips curve, a monetary policy rule and an exchange rate equation (uncovered interest parity (UIP) condition). The stylized model implies a set of short-run restrictions that allow for the identification of the structural shocks in a vector autoregression model in order to test the model’s consistency with data. We use real GDP for output, GDP deflator for price, Federal fund rate (FF) as monetary policy. The other two variables are unemployment rate and Nominal effective exchange rate (NEER). Throughout the analyses oil price is used as an exogenous variable. The Sample period starts from 1980q1, and ends at 2008 q2 to avoid possible non-linearity arise from 2008 financial crisis. Results show that more than half of the fluctuation in unemployment and output is explained by two shocks namely productivity/technology shock and aggregate demand shock. Monetary policy shock can explain around 15 per cent while supply and exchange rate shock explain less than 10 percent of the variation in unemployment and output. These results from our simple model are compatible with those from more sophisticated models found in current literature. Hence, our model is more appealing to the policy makers. Further, to gauge the importance of monetary policy in stabilizing the economy, a counterfactual simulation exercise is performed. The exercise shows that monetary policy has stabilized inflation and unemployment, though at the cost of increasing variability in output. The findings of this paper emphasize that policy makers should be aware of the importance of demand side shocks such as policy uncertainty and money supply. A positive uncertainty shock (an increase in uncertainty) may reduce investment and may slow the economic recovery. On the other hand, a prolong period of expansionary monetary policy may make the inflation expectations less anchored. Therefore, the policy makers should try to keep the impact of policy uncertainty at the minimum level and should follow prudent monetary policy.


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