- Archaeology, Epigraphy, Philology
963. Knozama Al-Bahloul, "Rapport préliminaire sur les travaux de l'équipe syrienne à Ras Shamra-Ougarit en 2012," Études Ougaritiques IV (2016) 267-90.
During the six seasons of excavations conducted by them at Ugarit in the years 2005–2012, a Syrian archaeological team discovered a large building of ca. 900 m2 with further extensions to both the north and the south. It was built directly on the top level of the rampart. While its eastern limit is known, the western limit was disturbed by a Late Hellenistic level, dating to the 1st cent. b.c. Explorations carried out in 2012 concentrated on the structure's northern part with a view to ascertaining its northern limit. In light of work done so far, the structure has been found to consist of a total of 27 rooms, 3 courtyards, and 2 tombs. The building is dated by the excavators to the Late Bronze Age II–III. [Adapted from published abstract—C.T.B.]
964. Michel Al-Maqdissi and Eva Ishaq, "Notes d'archéologie levantine L. Rapport préliminaire de la première campagne de fouilles à Tell Shamiye (Nahr El-ʿArab) en 2010," Études Ougaritiques IV (2016) 291-310.
The authors provide a preliminary report on the first season of excavations at the site mentioned in their title. On the basis of initial probes, it has been determined that the site [End Page 337] consists of ten strata, beginning with the early Bronze Age. Early Bronze Age II at the site is characterized by a defensive system associated with a slope made with compacted earth and two walls, along with a necropolis consisting of tombs carved in rock and dating to the Middle Bronze Age and Late Bronze Age II–III. The Iron Age (late Phoenician period) was typified by an important large building located in the western part of the Tell. The authors regard this as the most important phase in the site's history; it is probably to be related to the establishment of the "Leukos Limen" discovered at Ugarit. [Adapted from published abstract—C.T.B.]
965. Elizabeth Arnold, Jeremy Beller, Adi Behar, David Ben-Shlomo, Tina L. Greenfield, and Haskel J. Greenfield, "Interregional Trade and Exchange at Early Bronze Age Tell eṣ-Ṣâfi/Gath," NEA 80 (2017) 264-67.
Demand for common objects such as chipped stone, ground stone, and bitumen was met during EBA by southern Levantine suppliers. For this purpose Tell eṣ-Ṣâfi/Gath was socioeconomically connected to other regions for inter-regional exchange of domestic commodities. Donkey caravans dramatically increased the flow of trade from Egypt and other regions in EBA. Dental isotopic analysis of donkey remains indicates the presence of Egyptian animals at Tell eṣ-Ṣâfi/Gath. Among other objects providing evidence of trade connections are copper items, hippopotamus ivory, faience beads, and ceramic vessels.—V.H.M.
966. Elizabeth R. Arnold and Haskel J. Greenfield, "Isotope Analysis from the Early Bronze Fauna at Tell eṣ-Ṣâfi/Gath," NEA 80 (2017) 261-63.
Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes and radiogenic strontium have been used to examine domestic animal provisioning during the EB period at Tell eṣ-Ṣâfi/Gath. This approach seeks to determine whether or not the distribution systems were direct, with suppliers and consumers exchanging on a face-to-face basis, or indirect, with third parties such as elite administrators obtaining animals or their products from herders and then distributing them to consumers. Each of these arrangements would have had implications not only for the economic organization of the city, but also for the social and political relationships within it.—V.H.M.
967. Jeremy A. Beller, "Early Bronze Age Basalt Vessel Remains from Tell eṣ-Ṣâfi/Gath," NEA 80 (2017) 279-81.
Three fragments deriving from three individual basalt vessels were discovered in EB levels at Tell eṣ-Ṣâfi/Gath. They were manufactured from black, compact basalt...