The world of traditional Daoism is full of potentially or actively negative forces, unruly elements, villains, and evildoers, making it essential to guard against them. For this reason, Daoists over the millennia have established a culture of military and martial prowess on the supernatural level, taking recourse to spirit generals, celestial guardians, heavenly killers, and valiant protectors, both internalized within their bodies and activated through devotions, incantations, talismans, and amulets. Ranging from the spirit generals of the early Celestial Masters to rituals and meditations of the Perfect Warrior in the Ming, they have established strong and positive relations with the military dimension of the supernatural administration to create protection and defenses against the numerous potentially harmful factors of life.


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pp. 35-64
Launched on MUSE
Open Access
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