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The Catholic population of England grew significantly at mid-century, creating an urgent need for new services, especially education. During this period, the British press, charity records, and writings of social reformers reflected significant anxiety about physical degeneration, the decline of the Empire, and approaches to the physical, moral, and religious well-being of poor children. Catholics faced additional challenges—extensive poverty among their flock and widespread anti-Catholicism. Financial challenges notwithstanding, the orphanages and homes for working youth that Catholics founded as part of their commitment to stem losses to the faith were an important site of education, childcare services, and women’s religious work.