In recent decades, satellites have become increasingly important in the economic, civil, and military spheres. At the same time, space has become more crowded with satellites and the debris from their use, and many more states have become spacefaring. However, the legal and normative regime has not kept pace with these changes. Recent trends and events—including demonstrations of antisatellite (ASAT) capability, a collision between satellites, and a dramatic increase in dangerous space debris—make clear that the space environment needs more protection, that satellites face growing risks, and that space activities may be a potential source of mistrust and tension between countries. While voluntary confidence-building and transparency measures can help solve some of these issues, more substantive engagement is required to keep space safe and secure into the future.