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Previous studies of the Korean War have given much attention to the armistice negotiations that started in July 1951. Little has been written of the peacemaking efforts between the time of China’s entry into the war in October 1950 and the creation of the United Nations cease-fire resolution in early January 1951. Relying on Chinese, Russian, and US archival sources, in particular Mao Zedong’s recently published military papers and Chinese foreign ministry archives, this article examines China’s views and policies toward the UN resolution. It argues that Mao made an erroneous decision not to accept the UN resolution in January 1951. Because of the mistake, China completely lost its advantage on the Korean battlefield and in the international arena.