- Purchase/rental options available:
An examination of the word in four biblical occurrences (Gen 34:23; Josh 22:8; Ezek 38:12–13; and 2 Chr 14:14) reveals that it may be interpreted as "cattle/livestock" in these cases only after emendations and disregard of the structure, rhetorical pattern, and literary and historical contexts of the verses. Alternately, it is shown that inconsistencies and/or problems of translation disappear, in all four instances, after is identified as denoting raw metal. This metallurgical meaning of , explicitly evoked in Josh 22:8 and Ezek 38:12–13, is also supported by other metallurgical expressions derived from qny and its closely related roots, qyn and qnˀ. The disregard of such a meaning, evidenced from the Septuagint to modern scholarship, confirms that a part of the metallurgical terminology in the Bible was forgotten in the time interval between the redaction of the book of Chronicles and the Greek translation of the Bible.