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Book Reviews chapter, which starts with an Andean narrative about the origins of the Inka recorded in the early 1970s. While some scholars would prefer to deconstruct such an account and explain it in the light of recent events in indigenous history, Dean claims they are continuations of Inka ways of thinking, and as such should be taken seriously. She thus proceeds to an analysis of the relationship of the Inka with the natural and built environments departing from elements in that account. The second half of the book is certainly the most stimulating. The third chapter focuses on how the Inka culture of stone was deeply associated with Inka imperialism – or how their culture of stone symbolically ‘transformed Andean space into Inka territory’(105). By placing outcrops and walls of nibbled stone in strategic points of the landscape, the Inka empire signaled its presence and its power over that particular area. The analysis of how and where integrated outcrops and nibbled walls were constructed is particularly interesting, for the author sensibly focuses on the subtleties of strategic choices such as leaving protuberances in nibbled walls as ‘reminders of the labor inscribed in them’ (117). The attention drawn to Inka labor is one of the most important features of this book, and it is presented in full force in the last chapter, which deals with two different historical settings: the immediate post-conquest destruction of Inka temples and modern-day reconstruction of the preHispanic Inka world. As for the first moment, Dean shows that while the destruction of the temple of Saqsaywaman became a symbol of conquest for the Spanish Crown, for the Andeans this same event materially represented their own choice of converting to Christianity. When dealing with modern-day Peru, the author makes a very strong point by denouncing contemporary Andean tourist scene, its quest for authenticity, and the mystification that surrounds Andean achievements. Instead of valorizing Inka culture and history, these two phenomena actually result in ‘a separation of the Inka from the products of their labor’ (159). Although the last chapter is surely the most engaging one, the strength of this book lies in the combination of the four chapters. Their finely detailed explanations and descriptions fit each other to form a coherent whole – much like Inka masonry itself. This book will appeal to archaeologists , anthropologists and art historians, as well as to those interested in South American indigenous cultures. Mariana Françozo Faculty of Archaeology Leiden University, The Netherlands THE ALLURE OF LABOR: WORKERS, RACE, AND THE MAKING OF THE PERUVIAN STATE. By Paulo Drinot. Durham: Duke University Press, 2011, xi+311 pp., $24.95. In The Allure of Labor, Paulo Drinot argues that labor became fundamental to both the formation and functioning of the state in early 185 The Latin Americanist, June 2012 twentieth-century Peru. The nation’s progressive elite perceived two severe challenges to its plan to industrialize, which it believed was the path to modernity. First, in order to industrialize, factories would need workers, many of whom, the elite feared, followed subversive ideologies or sought to create social unrest. The second challenge came from the workers as well: the vast majority of those seeking work were indigenous migrants from the highlands. The white Peruvian elite imagined modernity to be many things (i.e., hygienic, coastal, and literate), but definitely it would not be indigenous. Drinot argues that by incorporating and controlling labor, the state eliminated racial barriers by effectively “de-Indianizing” workers, thereby making them modern, urban “agents of progress.” Labor became the answer to both the Indian and modernity questions, and as such became a central feature of state formation. The ability of labor to resolve the elite’s concerns is what Drinot calls “the allure of labor.” Given the importance of labor to the state’s modernizing project, Drinot proposes that Peru became a “labor state,” mutually constituted by the state and the working class. The first three chapters look at the establishment of the labor state, focusing on the development of a bureaucratic and legislative system for labor. The actions of the state towards labor, like the repression of the labor movement, and the workers’ acceptance or rejection...


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