This article challenges the notion that Kangxi-era policies (1661–1722) toward the southwest were laissez-faire. In June 1681, the Kangxi emperor extended the Qing state’s land reclamation program to recently pacified areas of Sichuan, Yunnan, and Guizhou. Programmatic incentives encouraged government officials to recruit Han settlers from China’s interior to reclaim land in these southwestern provinces, and officials profited enormously from this state-sponsored campaign. Since the southwest was populated almost exclusively by non-Han peoples at the time, the land reclamation program amounted to nothing less than the outright seizure of non-Han lands. This program of settler colonialism was accompanied by an equally aggressive state campaign to undermine the independence of non-Han leaders by increasing the number of tusi titles and offices bestowed specifically upon non-Han elites. Indeed, many features integral to colonization of the southwest during the Yongzheng emperor’s reign (1723–1735) originated under Kangxi’s rule.
本文對康熙皇帝在西南邊疆採取自由放任政策的普遍看法提出異議。作者認為，清朝在 1681 年吳三桂叛亂後，用土地開墾計劃，鼓勵內地漢人遷移、定居西南邊境。直到 1713 年，康熙對漢人入迁、聚居西南的速度和範圍感到滿意為止，才呼籲官員縮減規劃，不再對新開墾土地徵稅。