China’s distorted regional policy and geographical factors have led to unbalanced development in various regions, posing a major threat to the sustainability of the Chinese domestic economy. To address the thorny problem of the widening regional disparities, the Chinese authorities have proposed new policy initiatives and implemented measures that are targeted to promote an equitable and sustainable model of regional development in China. The pursuit of regional common prosperity is essential to retaining the performative legitimacy of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and maintaining sustainable economic development in China. While the previous administration was unable to find an effective solution to the daunting issue of regional economic disparities in China, President Xi Jinping and other Chinese leaders are determined to rise to this challenge. This article examines Xi’s vision of achieving balanced regional development and discusses the government’s regional reform initiatives over the past five years and the challenges it has faced.