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  • Note on Transliteration


An attempt has been made to achieve consistency in the transliteration of Hebrew words. The following are the key distinguishing features of the system that has been adopted:

  1. 1. No distinction is made between the alef and ayin; both are represented by an apostrophe, and only when they appear in an intervocalic position.

  2. 2. Veit is written v; ḥet is written ; yod is written y when it functions as a consonant and i when it occurs as a vowel; khaf is written kh; tsadi is written ts; kof is written k.

  3. 3. The dagesh ḥazak, represented in some transliteration systems by doubling the letter, is not represented, except in words that have more or less acquired normative English spellings that include doublings, such as Hallel, kabbalah, Kaddish, rabbi, Sukkot, and Yom Kippur.

  4. 4. The sheva na is represented by an e.

  5. 5. Hebrew prefixes, prepositions, and conjunctions are not followed by a hyphen when they are transliterated; thus betoledot ha'am hayehudi.

  6. 6. In the transliteration of the titles of works published in Hebrew, only the first word is capitalized; other than in the titles of works, names of people, places, and institutions are capitalized following the conventions of the English language.

  7. 7. The names of individuals are transliterated following the above rules unless the individual concerned followed a different usage.


Transliteration follows the YIVO system except for the names of people, where the spellings they themselves used have been retained.

russian and ukrainian

The system used is that of British Standard 2979:1958, without diacritics. Except in bibliographical and other strictly rendered matter, soft and hard signs are indicated by y before a vowel (e.g. Ilyich) but are otherwise omitted, and word-final -й, -ий, -ый, -ій in names are simplified to -y. [End Page xvii]



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