Though the framers of the constitution penned a social contract providing liberty and justice for all, 240 years later, people originally excluded from this treatise struggle for inclusivity through amendments and legislation. Many women of color, religious minorities, and gender/sexual minorities experience how those in power frequently suppress and coerce marginalized populations. Those in an intersection of these demographic positions may feel increased oppression. Despite several constitutional amendments and federal legislation, I argue that a more contemporary abuse is workplace bullying that occurs when the dominant person exploits his or her position to denigrate people in marginalized positions. In higher education, vulnerable and marginalized populations typically work in the least powerful positions (Hollis, 2016a). Within Mithaug’s (1996) theoretical frame regarding self-determination, the sample reported their experiences in 2017–2018. Of a sample in which N = 669, 58% of all respondents reported being affected by workplace bullying. A chi-square analysis confirmed that as the intersectionality became more complex (female, black, religious minority, and gender/sexual orientation), the respondent was more likely to be affected by workplace bullying in higher education.


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pp. 73-89
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