China has experienced a nationwide boom in think tank construction in recent years. This article attempts to explain the central government’s rationale for promoting the construction of “new type” of think tanks with Chinese characteristics and to shed light on the so-called new features of these think tanks. In addition, studying the reasons why intellectuals participate actively in the think tank construction and whether new think tanks can provide the scientific decision-making that the central government has expected are central to scholars’ and observers’ understanding of China’s ongoing think tank fever. The author finds that the new think tanks are not any different from the traditional ones in China. If the general political environment does not change, China’s think tank construction will face a questionable future.