A neo-Indian phenomenon, in which persons or groups who lack the conventionally expected ancestry or past affiliation begin to assert an Indian identity, is beginning to be recognized as having greater scale and scope than previously imagined. I explore one of the roots of the modern phenomenon in the person and early career of Craig Carpenter, in particular his relationship with the Hopi Traditionalist movement and League of North American Indians. Carpenter and key league officers were neo-Indians who helped foster a new “traditional” Indian identity and spirituality infused with Western romanticism and metaphysics mixed with Hopi prophecy. Past observers and activists have overlooked this neo-Indian presence, describing these arenas solely as Indian and traditional. I conclude with the paradox that many modern Indians, neo-Indians, and New Agers draw their beliefs, practices, and identities from a common source due to the effective proselytizing by these actors.


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pp. 215-245
Launched on MUSE
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