How well does the "electoral model" for mobilizing opposition travel? And what happens when the model is emulated without an election to serve as a focal point? This article examines the political mobilization that led to the fall of non-democratic leaders in the so-called "electoralmodel"countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia. Croatia, Serbia, Ukraine, George, and Kyrgyzstan) and compares them to the 2010 and 2011 popular uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt. Through a structured comparison of these ten cases, this article shows that the model can be adopted in non-electoral settings but with differing effects. In cases where mass mobilization occurs without elections, or where elections were not actually the factor that led to leadership turnover, there is a positive correlation with continued elevated popular mobilization, successors lack legitimacy, polarization among political actors is increased, and the democratic process is less institutionalized.


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pp. 195-226
Launched on MUSE
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