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Article II(b) of the UN Genocide Convention is rarely applied to a specific case in genocide studies. The Australian Aboriginal experience illustrates Article II(a) physical killing and II(e) child removal well enough. But in the longer term, II(b)—"causing serious bodily or mental harm"—has been the major process in destroying Aboriginal life and culture since the start of the twentieth century. The physical harm is readily detectable, but it is essentially the "serious mental harm" aspect that is examined here.