In 1954, Gene Z. Hanrahan published a book containing translations of some of the Malayan Communist Party's most important documents, many of which were unavailable to scholars at the time. That book subsequently became one of the most important and influential studies of the Malayan Emergency and is cited by practically every major work on the conflict. However, unlike other prominent scholars of the Emergency, Hanrahan faded into obscurity. His other work, of which there was little, ran the gamut from a collection of Ernest Hemingway's early writings to compilations of documents on the Mexican Revolution. The lack of information on Hanrahan and his diverse bibliography has raised questions about whether 'Gene Hanrahan' was a pseudonym used by an intelligence organization, research institute, or other collaborative research body. Drawing on Hanrahan's writings and newly-uncovered archival materials, this biographical account traces his career and scholarship, highlights his intellectual contributions, and considers how his approach to research can inform future work on Malaysian history.