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120 Canadian Review of American Studies 'shallowthink' about the ramifications of the autarchy anti-American nationalists called for. Two other points need to be made. The research evident in the notes and bibliographic essay include little of the "Borderlands" work that probes local links, often regional in scope, local identities and the impact geography has on cross-border values and attitudes. This leads directly into comparative federalism and a clear distinction between national and local/regional bilateral relations, whether political, bureaucratic, economic, social, or cultural. This is less criticism (no single book can do everything) than to suggest how the multi-layered story of Canadian-American relations which Thompson and Randall have presented might be yet further refined and developed. They have defined the subject for our times, explained an unfolding , complex relationship, built from intellectual and social roots, always in the context of the broad forces that shape modernizing western societies in a progressively global world. This engaging survey belongs in all libraries in both countries so that scholars, students, and the reading public alike can understand the realities of Canada and the United States as North American nations. Reginald C. Stuart Mount Saint Vincent University Michael P. Conzen, Thomas A. Rumney, and Graeme Wynn, eds. A Scholars Guide to Geographical Writing on the American and Canadian Past. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1993. Pp. xiv + 746, maps, illustrations, table, bibliography, and indexes. Geographical writing on the American and Canadian past is extensive in its range and diverse in its content. Conzen, Rumney, and Wynn assemble, sort, and index more than ten thousand books, dissertations, and articles. The result is an exemplary bibliographical achievement, which records almost one hundred and fifty years of scholarship in a comprehensive regional display representing most topics within the domain of historical geography. The bibliography, arranged as Canadian and American sections, is preceded by listings of bibliographies, methodological statements, works of benchmark scholars, atlases, and North American treatments, and followed by author BookReviews 121 and subject indexes. All of this is explained and made accessible in an introduction to the organizational framework. Accompanying and preceding the reference corpus of the volume are long essays on the establishment and development of historical geography in the United States by Conzen, and in Canada by Wynn. Combined with the masterful bibliographical work, these essayskey a scholar)s guide of immense value to researchers. Inevitably, even an ambitious work of this kind must exclude some research in any evolving, cyclically redirected yet broadly inclusive field of enquiry. Add to these characteristics of historical geography the even more inevitable defining limits imposed by any compilers and editors, and the reference source in question is bound to omit or de-emphasize some scholarship outside the acknowledged domain. For Conzen, Rumney, and Wynn, the net is cast around works "rooted in the imaginative realm of historical geography" (125). Studies of long-term change, conditions in the past, chronological flow and evolved character are prominent in the ample catch. Major subjects are agriculture and settlement, urbanization and industry, population and ethnicity, communications, trade and administration, landscape, as well as land and land-use. Less is offered about race and gender, recreation and tourism, resource management and historic preservation. To be fair, these areas are underrepresented in works authored byhistorical geographers, yet historical geography has been slow to embrace research in these fields, even when it may be attributed to historical geographers. According to Conzen, American historical geography remains scarred by research paradigm swings, and one may surmise from his retrospective that historical geographers in the United States have been content with empiricism and entranced by place and landscape. Conzen acknowledges that the reader)s guide conveys little of politics and ideology in general, and even less about specific issues of race, class, and power in America. Canadian historical geography has ventured farther in this direction, but in both countries, a predominance of fact and faction has characterized the field. In his essay, Conzen follows the course of American historical geography from its nineteenth-century "gestation," through the "paradigm" shifts of the first half of the current century, into a quarter-century of "eclecticism," and finallyto "epistemological and ideological" discourse. Historical geographers will...


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