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Abstract

By the late Ming Dynasty(1602), the Beijing dialect of the Chinese language had witnessed the phenomenon of palatalization in the fine sounds of jian 见 group andjing 精 group, but the two kinds of sounds, called respectivelytuan 团 sounds and jing 尖 sounds today, were still entirely different from each other. From the same period when the primary edition of Jiu Manzhou Dang 旧 满 洲 档 (Government archive of the early Manchu/Manzhou) [MG 1607-1636], we can see that the Manchus in the Northeast of China confused the two kinds of sounds at the beginning of learning Chinese language, which is described as the merge of jian andtuan sounds. After the entry of Manchus (1644), characterized by the merge of jian andtuan sounds, the imperfect Chinese language spoken by Manchus entered the inner city of Beijing and formed a contrast with the traditional Chinese language spoken by the Han people in the outer city of Beijing. Due to the implementation of the Manchu as the national language (guoyu 国 语) in the early Qing dynasty, the language spoken by Manchus in the inner city affected the language spoken by the Han people in the outer city through education. About 100 years later (1743-1810), in the spoken Chinese of the Han people in the outer city, the phenomenon of merging jian and tuan sounds appeared first only in some words, and then finally took over completely. This shows that the phenomenon of merging jian andtuan sounds in the Beijing dialect of the Qing dynasty is a result of the horizontal transmission of linguistic features from the Manchus in the inner city to the Han people in the outer city. The so-called “horizontal transmission” is the mutual effect between different languages when they contact with each other. The history of the Beijing dialect of the Qing dynasty is a history of the Manchus in the inner city abandoning the Manchu language, which was first converted imperfectly into the Chinese language and then finally merged with the spoken Chinese of the Han people in the outer city. In this process, on account of the special social status of the Manchus in the inner city, their spoken Chinese with the merge jian andtuan sounds affected that of the Han people in the outer city, and eventually prompted the same merge of two sounds of jian andtuan sounds among the latter, just as what had happened to the Manchus

提要

明末(1602)北京话虽已出现见精组细音字腭化现象,其界限仍泾渭分明。但由同期的《旧满洲档》 (满官方Man Guanfang(MG) [1607-1636]1969) 来看,地处东北的满族人在学习汉语伊始就出现了混淆见精组细音字现象,即尖团合流。满族入关(1644)之后,尖团合流式的汉语进入北京内城,与北京外城汉语形成对立。由于清初推行“国语”即满语,满族人的口语通过教育的方式影响到了北京外城汉族人的语言。百年之后 (约1743-1810),北京外城汉族人的口语也出现并完成了尖团合流。由此可见,清代北京话的尖团合流是北京内城满族人的语言特征横向传递给北京外城汉族人的结果。所谓“横向传递”就是因语言接触而造成的不同语言之间的相互影响。清代北京话的历史是内城满族人放弃满语并不完善转换为汉语,然后与外城汉族人所操汉语融合的历史。在这个过程中,由于内城满族人的特殊社会地位,内城满族人的汉语口语对外城汉族人的汉语口语产生了影响,促使外城汉族人口语中的尖团音像内城人满族人一样产生了合流。

Keywords

Beijing dialect of Qing dynasty, Language contact of the Han people and the Manchus, Horizontal transmission, jian 尖 and tuan 团sounds

关键词

清代北京话 汉满语言接触  横向传递  尖团音

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Additional Information

ISSN
2411-3484
Print ISSN
0091-3723
Launched on MUSE
2017-12-05
Open Access
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