Noncognitive factors, such as academic self-efficacy, motivation, and sense of belonging, predict college students’ academic performance and retention. It is unclear if varying profiles of academic mindset are differentially associated with student success. We examined first-year college students’ academic mindsets (perceived academic self-efficacy, sense of belonging, and academic motivation) along with academic performance and first-to-second-year retention. Participants included 1,400 students enrolled at a diverse, urban research university. Cluster analysis identified 4 profiles of students: all high, self-efficacy-oriented, belonging-oriented, and all low. Students in the all high group were the most likely to succeed and students in the all low group were the least likely. Self-efficacy was more closely associated with academic performance, whereas belonging was more closely associated with retention. The results provide important intervention implications to improve college student success.


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pp. 1119-1134
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