The dominant theme in conservation relates to attempts to preserve species from extinction by separating humans from nonhumans, mainly by creating nature reserves and national parks. These attempts have led to forced removals in many parts of Africa and elsewhere. In recent years, transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs) have emerged in southern Africa under the banner of a new conservation paradigm, which supposedly takes the interests and livelihoods of local residents seriously. This claim should be subjected to scrutiny. Empirically, it asks what the relationship between TFCAs and local communities might be. This study uses evidence from the Greater Mapungubwe TFCA to argue that TFCAs do not live up to their promises of more equitable conservation.