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437 ture, pp. 3–4): ‘The story of how it came aboutthattheimpoverishedandrelatively isolated groups of ninth-century Greeks grew into the flourishing and vigorous Greeks of the fifth century is the story that is told here’ (p. 17). This approach puts the cultural emphasis on the period to come, the Classical era, and seems to deal with the archaic period as if it lacked its own personality or relevance. This impression is largely contradicted by the rest of the narrative, but it still remains as a puzzling feature. Displaying different approaches and aiming at different audiences, both works fulfil their objectives with considerable success. Specialists will find O.’s work muchmoreinterestinganduseful,butS.’s appeals to the general reader in a rigorous and serious way. Previous reviews of S.’s work: LEC (1998) 66.1–2, 182–183 (O. De Bruyn); Klio (2001) 83.1, 227–228 (K. GrossAlbenhausen ). O.’s book has been repeatedly reviewed: Topoi (1997) 7.1, 289–292(J.C.Poursat); AJA(1998)102.3, 629–630(C.G.Thomas); BMCRev(1998) 2.9 (5), 472-476 (L.E. Roller); Gymnasium (1998) 105.6, 548–552 (U. Walter); JHS (1998) 118, 235–236 (P.J. Rhodes). __________ 1 Previous reviews of S.’s work: LEC (1998) 66.1–2, 182–183 (O. e Bruyn); Kilo (2001) 83.1, 227–228 (L. GrossAlbenhausen ). O’s book has been repeatedly reviewed: Topoi (1997) 7.1, 289–292(J.C.Poursat); AJA(1998)102.3, 629–630(C.G.Thomas); BMCRev(1998) 2.9 (5), 472–476 (L.E. Roller); Gymnasium (1998) 105.6, 548–552 (U. Walter); JHS (1998) 118, 235–236 (P. J. Rhodes). 2 For instance, he uses the word ‘revolution’ 13 times to describe cultural change in Greece (pp. 2, 43, 64, 76, 153, 157, 190, 197, 212, 226, 278, 280, 297). Fernando Echeverría University College London Vella, Raphel 2008. Crosscurrents. Critical Essays on Art and Culture in Malta. Malta: Allied Publishers, 319 pp. ISBN 978-99909-3-134-1. ‘One can be for or against but not without the Church.’ This seems to be the leitmotif in many of the lengthy chapters of this book which traces the main developments in modern and contemporary art in Malta. The church, as a major patron of the arts and specifically painting and sculpture in Malta and Gozo throughout the ages, conditioned the development of the representationalarts .Foryearsartistshadto balance their interest in cubism and abstract painting with the need for securing commissions in churches, as Kenneth Wain explains in his chapter, highlighting the tensions involved in this regard and broadening the discussion to include an analysis of such motifs as that of megalithic art (manifest in the work of Gabriel Caruana, Paul Haber, Neville Ferry and, I would add, Richard England and John Manduca) and the influence of hotels and commercial establishments in the 60s and 70s. Wain also traces the development of the modern art movement in Malta indicating its various waves throughout the 50s, 60s and 70s. The Catholic Church remains an important source of reference in many chapters, including the one by Isabelle Borg and Paul Clough concerned with artisticrenderingsofthebody. Thislargely sociological chapter discusses the various (13) Last pages 24.10.17, 11:04 437 438 influences, throughout history, that conditioned the different artistic renderings of the body. Special attention is devoted to the Church, the Italianate influence, English colonialism, an elitist education system and contemporary preoccupations with issues of gender and sexuality in a period when the influence of the Church declined considerably. It is argued, with respect to the contemporary period, that ‘Very seldom do Maltese artists experiment with a radical distortion of human anatomy’, since a ‘technically correct representation of the body remains the rule in contemporary Maltese art’. Quite intriguing, with respect to previous periods, is the statement that, despite the Italianrenaissanceandbaroqueinfluence, Maltese renderings of the body lacked the sensuality found in early 17th century Italian religious painting, owing to a largely powerless local aristocracy. Given the social science approach developedthroughoutseveralpartsofthis chapter, I would have liked to see much longer excerpts from in depth interviews with the artists that would have conveyed some sense of their construction of the artisticworldtheyinhabitandsomeinkling...


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