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  • Beyond the Rope: The Impact of Lynching on Black Culture and Memory by Karlos K. Hill
  • Patricia Boyett
Beyond the Rope: The Impact of Lynching on Black Culture and Memory. By Karlos K. Hill. Cambridge Studies on the American South. ( New York: Cambridge University Press, 2016. Pp. x, 145. Paper, $24.99, ISBN 978-1-107-62037-7; cloth, $99.00, ISBN 978-1-107-04413-5.)

Karlos K. Hill's Beyond the Rope: The Impact of Lynching on Black Culture and Memory offers a unique and powerful contribution to the growing literature exploring black perspectives on lynchings. Using a multidisciplinary approach and a range of archival sources, Hill debunks the prevailing narrative that black responses to lynchings remained static. Rather, their narrative shifted in dynamic ways in accordance with sociopolitical conditions and cultural needs. By tracing black responses from Reconstruction to the present, Hill taps into a narrative rarely explored by historians: the two distinct black responses to racialization—the "victimization narrative" and the "consoling narrative"—and the rise and decline of black vigilantism in reaction to the racialization of lynchings (pp. 4, 70).

Hill argues that black vigilantism in the Mississippi and Arkansas Deltas arose out of the judicial system's failure to pursue justice when victims of crime were black. Most African Americans used vigilantism to respond to egregious crimes like murder and rape when a suspect's guilt seemed certain. Vigilantism may also have been the response when black men perceived a crime as an attack on their efforts to develop a patriarchal structure in their households because such an assault undermined their status as free men. As these lynchings served as a means of implementing justice rather than terrorizing a community, mobs delivered death quickly through hangings and shootings instead of ritualistic and torturous killings common in white mob lynchings. Hill also demonstrates that black vigilantism declined dramatically in the mid-to-late 1880s when white supremacists increasingly used lynchings, alongside segregation and black disenfranchisement, to reassert white authority in the emerging Jim Crow system. White supremacists also constructed the "black beast rapist narrative," which they used to claim that without the restraining influence of slavery or lynchings, black men would act upon their animalistic desires and rape white women (p. 10). African Americans responded to the "racialization of lynching" by creating two counternarratives (p. 11).

Activists like Ida B. Wells crafted the "victimization narrative" to replace depictions of black men as beasts with portrayals of blacks as oppressed victims of brutal racists (p. 4). They inverted the myth because a powerless black man would not threaten white hegemony, and a moral imperative would compel persons of conscience to oppose lynchings. Such efforts helped the NAACP [End Page 999] convince Congress to introduce antilynching bills. Although the victimization narrative proved politically useful, Hill argues that it failed to provide a healing medium for black people traumatized and terrorized by racial lynchings. Thus, they also crafted a "consoling narrative" in which victims resisted their subjugation by defying Jim Crow laws, fighting mobs, and refusing to request mercy (p. 70). These narratives allowed black resisters to exercise their agency with heroic acts. Through an exploration of fictional characters such as Big Boy in Richard Wright's Uncle Tom's Children (1938), real-life accounts of Robert Charles's stand against a white mob in Wells's "Mob Rule in New Orleans" (1900), and stories handed down in black families and recorded in oral histories, Hill shows how noble characterizations served as cathartic, empowering narratives that combated terror.

Karlos K. Hill's powerful book illuminates how African Americans navigated racial oppression in response to their changing circumstances and needs. The author's intellectual, theoretical, and multidisciplinary approach makes Beyond the Rope ideal for graduate students and experts in the humanities and social sciences. As Hill conveys his complex ideas in clearly articulated arguments and provides a cogent structure, the book is also suitable for upper-level undergraduates. For all readers, Hill's rich narrative and unique interpretation should stimulate thoughtful discourses and inspire the expansion of black counternarratives to American terror.

Patricia Boyett
Loyola University New Orleans


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pp. 999-1000
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