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The Smallwood Legacy: The Development of Underdevelopment in Newfoundland 1949-1972 RALPH MATTHEWS 84. Eighty-four. In all Newfoundland and Labrador. 84. 84what? 84 schools with indoor toilets. That was Newfoundland on the day that I became Premier. Today: 838 Schools have indoor toilets. We have not in those years, produced any new or original education theory, philosophy or practice. But we have put indoor toilets in 744 [sic] schools that didn't have them. That's progress. -Joseph R. Smallwood, To You With Affection From Joey, St. John's, Newfoundland, 1969. Joseph Smallwood presided as Premier of Newfoundland from its incorporation as a province of Canada in 1949, ~ntil his electoral defeat in 1972. During that period every facet of Newfoundland life was drastically altered as Smallwood strove, ''to bring Newfoundlanders kicking and screaming into the twentieth century.'' While Smallwood's political activities have been analysed by a number of researchers, 1 very little systematic attention has been given to analysing his social and economic policies and their significance in Newfoundland development. This essay attempts to rectify that deficiency. Smallwood, himself, has provided lengthy documentation of many of these policies and programs ,2 and similar lists can be found in the budget speeches and platforms of the Liberal Party which he headed. However, the analysis here difJournal ofCanadian Studies Vol. 13, No. 4 (River 1978-79 Winter) fers from these sources by examining the Smallwood government's social and economic accomplishments in the context of the broader issues associated with development and change. In order to establish a basis for such an analysis, the following section of this paper will outline some of the fundamental obstacles to social and economic development in Newfoundland which faced the Newfoundland government throughout Smallwood's term in office. With this as guide, we will examine in turn Smallwood's basic development orientation and tactics and his particular programs for social and economic development . With that completed, we will be in a position to assess the appropriateness of Smallwood 's strategies and their strengths and weaknesses . Obstacles to Newfoundland's Social and Economic Development Probably Newfoundland's most fundamental obstacles to development are the growth rate and dispersion of her population. 3 A Royal Commission on Social and Economic Development in the province noted that "Economic development embraces the whole socio-economic process Table 1 Population of Newfoundland and Labrador 1936-1971 Year 1836 1857 1869 1874 1884 1891 1901 1911 1921 1935 1945 1951 1956 1961 1966 1971 Population 75,094 124,288 146,536 161,374 197,335 202,040 220,984 242,619 263,033 289,588 321,819 361,416 415,074 457,853 493,396 522,104 Sources: Census of Newfoundland and Labrador, 1935, 1:9. Thahane: Population Growth and Shifts in Newfoundland. Canada Year Book, 1968, 1972. 89 Table2 Newfoundland IJve Birth, Death, and Natural Increase Rates per 1,000 Population. By Periods 1921to1971. Period 1921to1925 1926 to 1930 1931 to 1935 1936 to 1940 1941to1945 1946 to 1950 1951to1955 1956 to 1960 1961to1965 1966 to 1970 1971 Average Live Birth Rate 26.7 25.l 23.4 25.8 29.8 36.2 34.l 34.6 31.5 25.8 24.5 Average Death Rate 14.0 13.7 12.8 12.4 11.8 9.3 7.6 7.2 6.6 6.2 6.1 Average Natural Increase Rate 12.7 11.4 10.6 13.4 18.0 26.9 26.5 27.4 24.9 19.6 18.4 Sources: Canada Year Book, 1956, 1961, 1968, 1972. Vital Statistics, Preliminary Annual Report, 1971, Statistics Canada Cat. No. 84-201. whereby an economy's real income increases at a rate faster that its population growth. "4 The Newfoundland population has grown so rapidly that her economic gains have largely been dissipated (see Table 1). The high birth rate and low death rate which saw her population surge during the nineteenth century continued unabated until the acute depression of the 1930s. However, with the post-war 'baby boom,' Newfoundland's birth rate. reached unprecedented levels (see Table 2). Just as this expansion was ending elsewhere Newfoundland joined Canada. There followed a period of unprecedented...