The relationship between centre and periphery has been a continuing topic for research among sociologists, anthropologists, economists and geographers. The ongoing process of globalization seems to have intensified the inequality inherent in this relationship. In nation states, the center is taking a growing role in the global economy, leaving the periphery in a state of dependence on government policies whose aim is to keep it from further decline. Inevitably, this situation leads to increased poverty in peripheral zones and encourages emigration of the stronger elements among the local population. The purpose of my presentation is to introduce the Israeli case by illustrating some facts and myths related to the ethnic, social and cultural circumstances in the Negev, Israel’s southern region. It reveals, however, also the unexpected development of a peripheral social enclave at the centre.