• Texas: Where Americans, Mexicans, Germans, and Italians Meet:The Hauschild Music Collection at the Cushing Memorial Library and Archives
English Abstract

This article is an expanded and corrected version of a presentation given at the International Association of Music Libraries, Archives, and Documentation Centres (IAML) Congress in Rome on 8 July 2016. It explores the Hauschild Music Collection at the Cushing Memorial Library & Archives at Texas A&M University and places it in an historical context. The music in this collection is little known, yet it gives a vivid picture of musical life in south Texas at the turn of the twentieth century.

French Abstract

Cet articlesest une version développée et corrigée de la présentation qui fut donnée au congrès IAML de Rome le 8 juillet 2016. Il explore la Hauschild Music Collection conservée à la bibliothèque Cushing Memorial Library & Archive A& M University, et la place dans son contexte historique. On sait peu de choses au sujet de la musique dans cette collection, pourtant, ce que nous connaissons donne une image frappante de la vie musicale dans le Texas du sud au tournant du 20e siècle.

German Abstract

Bei diesem Artikel handelt es sich um eine erweiterte und korrigierte Version eines Vortrages, der auf dem IAML-Kongress in Rom am 8. Juli 2016 gehalten wurde. Er beschäftigt sich mit der Musiksammlung Hauschild und ordnet sie in den historischen Kontext ein. Die Sammlung ist ein Bestandteil der Cushing Memorial Library & Archives, die wiederum zur Texas A&M University gehören. Die darin enthaltene Musik ist kaum bekannt, vermag aber einen lebendigen Eindruck vom Musikleben im südlichen Texas an der Wende zum 20. Jahrhundert zu geben.


The Cushing Memorial Library & Archives at Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas houses rare books, special collections, manuscripts, and the Texas A&M University Archives. It maintains important and unique collections in many subjects, including Texas and Borderlands, Colonial Mexican Imprints, Western Americana, military history, science fiction, nineteenth-century American prints and illustrators, and the history of books and printing, as well as significant literary collections. The library also houses a working hand press studio where a Book History Workshop is held annually.

An exhibit of items from the Cushing Library's collections that highlight the contributions of Texas and Texans to the nation and the world provided the impetus for the present study. The exhibit was entitled, "Shifting Frontiers: Texas from Spain to Space", and ran from late October 2016 through June 2017.

The Hauschild Collection

The Cushing Library also owns unique and interesting items in relatively minor collecting areas, such as music. The Hauschild Music Collection, part of the larger Texas and Borderlands Collection, is one of these. It contains materials published by, or pertaining to, the Hauschild Music Company of Victoria, Texas, one of the two earliest music publishers and vendors in Texas, which was founded in 1891 by a German-born businessman, George Herman Hauschild. The collection includes eighteen pieces of popular sheet music (marches, waltzes, polkas, ragtime), three of which are fragments; thirty-one sheet music covers; ten photographs; newspaper clippings, mainly from the Victoria Advocate; two posters, and three published scrapbooks edited by Henry J. Hauschild, Jr., The Victoria Sesquicentennial Scrapbook, 1824–1974, The Runge Chronicle: A German Saga of [End Page 261] Success, and the folio-sized A Musical Chronicle from the Historical Scrapbooks. These scrapbooks are highly informative and entertaining, and they contain information that cannot easily be found elsewhere. Unfortunately, they are rather difficult to use for research; none of them is indexed, and the one most critical for this essay, A Musical Chronicle, lacks pagination1.

Most of the items in the Hauschild Collection are reproductions, and may have been used as proof pages for A Musical Chronicle, since they all appear there with the same markings or annotations. The number of sheet music covers, as opposed to actual sheet music, is a case in point. The two posters and numerous pages in this large scrapbook are replicas of pages in A Pictorial History of Victoria County; other pages in A Musical Chronicle incorporate text from Elizabeth Power Warden's booklet, Through the Years with Music in a Little Texas Town2. Interestingly, some of the Hauschild music in the Delmer Rogers Collection at the Dolph Briscoe Center for American History at the University of Texas in Austin is also photocopied3. One wonders how many original exemplars of this material still exist.

It is not exactly certain how or when the Cushing Library came into possession of this collection. However, its copy of A Musical Chronicle is inscribed by Henry J. Hauschild (Junior) to Professor Charles Schultz. Hauschild (1915–2008), the grandson of the company's founder, had a keen interest in local history and book collecting, and was active in several historical associations, hence, the scrapbooks. Charles R. Schultz (1935–2012) was a distinguished archivist and historian who had worked in the Cushing Library for decades, only retiring in 2009. Like Hauschild, Schultz was of German descent, and he came from a small town in south-central Texas. It seems plausible that these two men were friends, given their similar interests and background, and that Hauschild gave this collection to the library through Schultz.

Hauschild Holdings in Other Libraries

Other libraries, mostly in Texas, also own Hauschild materials. In addition to the Briscoe Center, mentioned above, there are holdings at the University of Texas in Arlington; the University of North Texas, in Denton; the Degolyer Library at Southern Methodist University in Dallas; two pieces at the San Jacinto Museum of History in La Porte; and a unique piece at the University of Houston. Victoria College/The University of Houston at Victoria houses a small Hauschild archive. The library of the Daughters of the Republic of Texas has several pieces, two of which are unique. This library was closed in June 2016; it is scheduled to reopen in October 2017. Outside of Texas, the University [End Page 262] of Alabama in Tuscaloosa and Knights of Columbus Museum in New Haven, Connecticut have one title each4.

Texas History and Musical History Prior to Statehood

Native Americans of various tribes—Apache, Comanche, Caddo, Kiowa, Wichita, and Kitsai, among others—played the first music in what is now Texas. From 1519 to 1821, much of the area was under Spanish rule; there was a brief period of French colonization from 1685 to 1690. Priests and religious men and women came from Spain during the colonial era; they sang and taught sacred music, particularly in the missions and in San Antonio. Opera and European classical music were cultivated mainly by the upper classes.

After 1821, when Mexico (which then included the northern province of Tejas) claimed independence from Spain, Mexican culture became increasingly secularized. Dances—bailes and fandangos—had become popular in Mexico even before independence, and continued to be a favorite pastime. During the 1820s the Mexican government issued land grants to encourage people to settle the northern or "interior" provinces. The growing influx of English-speaking Anglo American and African American immigrants laid the foundation of what became Texas's current roots-based styles (folk, blues, country, gospel, etc.). Mounting tensions between Mexico and the Texians (as the English-speaking settlers then called themselves) led to Texas claiming independence as a sovereign republic in 1836. Its incorporation into the United States as the twenty-eighth state in 1845 set off the Mexican-American War. Like the other Southern states, Texas seceded from the Union in 1861, and was reincorporated after the Civil War ended in 1865.

German and Central European Musical Influences

Meanwhile, a steady stream of immigrants came to Texas from other states and from Europe. Germans, Czechs, Poles, and other peoples settled in numerous towns whose names reflect their ethnic history, for example, New Braunfels, Schulenberg, and Smetana. These Central Europeans, whose ranks included professionals, educators, and intellectuals as well as farmers and tradesmen, had a love of music that encompassed classical as well as folk and popular styles. In an era when people had to create their own entertainment, music making was valued as part of everyday life in the home, church, school, and community. Almost every German and Czech community had a band or orchestra; the term "orchestra" often referred to small instrumental ensembles that included strings as well as winds. The Germans in particular started amateur choirs and Singvereinen (singing clubs) that participated in festivals. Dance forms such as the waltz, the polka, and the schottische (or vals, polca, and chotís in Spanish) had an enormous and lasting effect on the music of both Mexico and the United States (and elsewhere). A good deal of Tejano music is in either waltz or polka rhythm. Another important contribution is the accordion. Affordable, portable, and allowing one person to play both melody and harmony simultaneously, the accordion, especially the button accordion, soon became the instrument that distinguished the conjunto from the string-based (bowed and plucked) orquesta among Mexican American musicians. [End Page 263]

In the early 1880s, a German-born furniture maker, Adam Jatho (1838–1923), started up the Victoria Silver Cornet Band, which he also directed. This band played at important functions in Victoria for many years. It disbanded briefly when Jatho stepped down, but one of its members, August Wagner, reorganised and renamed it. Upon Wagner's death in 1919, the directorship went to H. D. Lawrence, who wrote and arranged music for Hauschild5.

Thomas Goggan, Texas's Pioneer Music Publisher

The first music publisher and vendor in Texas was Thomas (Thos.) Goggan and Brothers. An Irishman, Thomas Goggan (1843–1903) came to Texas with a large supply of musical instruments, and established a music store in Galveston in 1866. There, he sold the leading U.S. brands of instruments, sheet music, and music books. Galveston was a major port and economic center during the nineteenth century, but lost that hegemony after the devastating hurricane of 1900. Since then, it has been greatly overshadowed by Houston, which is further inland. Goggan was very effective in marketing his goods through advertising and by sending complimentary copies to major Texas newspapers. After his brothers John and, later, Mike joined the firm, he opened a branch in San Antonio. This new store brought the Goggan Brothers closer to customers living in central and western Texas–a smart move, considering that San Antonio is 398 kilometers (247 miles) from Galveston. By the time Goggan died in 1903, his enterprise had branches in several Texas cities. It even sold pianos bearing the Goggan name, although it is uncertain whether the company actually manufactured these instruments. Later, the store's stock included radios, phonographs, and records. His firm continued to publish music until 1930; Goggan's sheet music imprints numbered in the hundreds.

The Hauschild Music Company

Texas's second music publisher, the Hauschild Music Company began business nearly thirty years after Goggan opened his store. Its founder, Georg Hermann (sometimes anglicised as George Herman) Hauschild was born in Germany in 1838 or 1839. While still in his teens, he came to the United States and lived with his older brother, John, in New York City, where he apprenticed in the hospitality business. Having learned of opportunities in the South, he moved to New Orleans shortly before the Civil War erupted. While there, he met and married a young German woman, and served in the Confederate Army with the Hansa Guards. After the war, he relocated to Victoria, Texas, where his wife's brother had a cotton plantation. Victoria, located on the coastal plains of south Texas not far from the Gulf of Mexico, was founded in 1824, when Texas was still part of Mexico. By the middle of the nineteenth century, a large German community had settled there and in nearby areas. In 1866, Hauschild opened a hotel called the Hermann House; this was later converted into the Hauschild Apartments. He was a successful businessman, and soon became a leader in the community6. [End Page 264]

Fig. 1. Hauschild Opera House
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Fig. 1.

Hauschild Opera House

Victoria's main outlet for musical and theatrical performances, lectures, and social events was the Casino Hall, erected in 1854. By the 1890s, the building was in disrepair, and the town had grown in size. Seeing an opportunity, Hauschild established his music company in 1891. Two years later he and his eldest son, Henry John (Senior) began building the Hauschild Opera House (see fig. 1) at the corner of Liberty and Forrest Streets in Victoria. The handsome new building opened the following year. The music store, formerly located in the Hauschild Apartments, moved to the first floor, while the theatre or auditorium was on the second and third floors. The auditorium was equipped with folding chairs to allow the space to be used for dances and sports events as well as for concerts, lectures, and theatrical performances. Later, silent movies and vaudeville shows were also shown there. The opera house continued to be used as a venue into the 1930s.

Several principles guided Hauschild's approach to his music enterprise. True to his German education and upbringing, he thought that amateur music making promoted the social, intellectual, and moral well-being of individuals and society. He was also a strong advocate of buying and selling locally, so that the community invested in itself. For example, he employed local artists to produce designs for sheet music covers. There were practical considerations as well. In the early 1890s, the demand for sheet music was very high. Families and friends would crowd around a piano in someone's home; some might bring [End Page 265] other instruments, while others sang. This made for an evening's entertainment in a pre-mass media era. Hauschild probably thought that having a music store in Victoria would be more convenient for local and regional customers. While Goggan had already set up the San Antonio branch of his store, that was still 185 kilometers (115 miles) from Victoria—much closer than Galveston, but still a long journey by horse or stagecoach. (Today one can drive between San Antonio and Victoria in less than two hours.) As a leader in the city's cultural and political life, Hauschild seemed to know everyone in the area, and therefore, what kind of market he had for his enterprises.

Hauschild's sons and, later, his grandson helped to manage the business: Henry J. (Senior) (1870–1957); Otto (1875–1952); Lester H. (1907–2005); Edward G. (1916–2002); and Henry J. (Junior), (1915–2008). Henry had some background in printing and in journalism. In fact, it was under his leadership that the company and the Opera House enjoyed their greatest success. Henry and Otto were students at the Agricultural and Mechanical College in College Station—now Texas A&M University—during the 1890–1891 academic year, but they returned home afterwards to help their father. While there, they formed a small six-man orchestra that played at special events, attesting to the love of music instilled in them early in life.

Hauschild's first published piece of sheet music came out in 1892. It was the Ideal Polka (fig. 2) by Chas. (Charles) L. Strieber (1868–1923), who owned a cotton gin7. Initially, Hauschild used black and white covers; colour was added after 1900.

Mexican and Mexican American Composers

If any piece started a general fad for Mexican music, it was a tuneful, dreamy waltz, Sobre las Olas (Over the Waves) by Juventino Rosas. Rosas was born in 1868 in Guanajuato, Mexico, and led a tragically short peripatetic life; he died in Surgidero de Batabanó, Cuba in 1894. This waltz probably came out in 1888, a time when waltzes were, so to speak, the life of the party. The popularity of Sobre las Olas skyrocketed, to the extent that practically everyone today would recognise the first line or two of the main melody without knowing its name or its composer, in too fast a tempo, and with different association than Rosas most likely intended. The tune was often played at fairs and carnivals, hence the present-day perception of it. American publishers, including Thomas Goggan, soon brought out their editions of this song, and there was a big market for "Mexican waltzes". With Texas so close to Mexico, music publishers in Texas were in a good position to supply this demand. Goggan published a number of these works, and Hauschild made "Mexican" music his specialty. The term "Mexican" is placed in quotes here because the composers of music so designated were not always of Mexican ethnicity or origin (for example, H. D. Lawrence, R. M. Grace, Bernard S. Seffel, and John B. Viano). These pieces, often given fanciful titles in both English and Spanish or named for particular women (usually the dedicatees), tried to capture the emotive melodiousness and rhythmic vivacity that was commonly perceived to be characteristic of the Mexican style.

On the other hand, Hauschild did, in fact, champion the work of Mexican and Mexican American composers. One of the most prolific composers with the Hauschild Company was Louis Felipe Diaz (dates unknown), who was originally a sign painter. A photo of Diaz [End Page 266]

Fig. 2. Charles L. Strieber, Ideal Polka (1892).
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Fig. 2.

Charles L. Strieber, Ideal Polka (1892).

in uniform, holding a flute, appears on the covers of several of his compositions. He led his three sisters, Clara, Lucy, and Mary, in the Diaz Orchestra. He married another composer, Leonora Rives, discussed below in the section on women composers. The Paris Exposition: March-Two Step (1899) is attractive; it was reissued in 1974 as the Victoria Sesquicentennial March for that celebration. Hipólito G. Perez, the composer of the Lupe [End Page 267]

Fig. 3. Louis F. Diaz, Popular Mexican Music (1907).
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Fig. 3.

Louis F. Diaz, Popular Mexican Music (1907).

Three-Step: Mazurka (1907) came from Goliad and led a dance band that was considered one of the best; its instruments included violins, viola, flute, and bull fiddle. A. M. Alvarado produced The New Maria Waltz (1902). Leonardo F. Bolado had a long-term relationship with the Hauschild Company; his Valse "Luisa" was published in 1893, while Al Pie del Altar (At the Foot of the Altar) came out twenty years later in 1913. Unfortunately, no biographical information is available for these last two composers. [End Page 268]

At least two of Hauschild's composers were from Mexico proper. They are represented in the collection only by their illustrated covers. According to the Ancestry Database, a musician named Juan R. (Rodriguez) Guerra was born in Mexico in 1866; he came to San Antonio in 1901 and became a naturalised citizen in 19188. He wrote the "Alice" Waltz in 1903. Particularly interesting is En Alta Mar (On the High Sea) by Abundio Martínez (1875–1914). Martínez came from Huichapan, in the central Mexican state of Hidalgo, and was a member of the Otomí tribe. He dedicated this piece to Carmen Romero Rubio, the wife of the then-President of Mexico, Porfirio Díaz. Hauschild published an edition of this waltz in 1901. To my knowledge, no exemplars of the printed music are extant in the United States. However, the music of Abundio Martínez is still played in Mexico; YouTube recordings of En Alta Mar exist in arrangements for piano, orchestra, and military band.

Compositions by Women

Contrary to popular belief, it was fairly common in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries for women to write music, especially songs with piano accompaniment and short piano solos—the types of works published as sheet music—which were considered socially proper for well-bred ladies to perform and even compose. In accordance with social norms of that time, they usually designated themselves as "Mrs. [name of husband]" if they were married, or "Miss [her own name]" if single. However, they sometimes used their own names, with or without titles, regardless of their marital status. Caution is recommended when perusing old sheet music collections, since both men and women occasionally used pseudonyms of the opposite sex.

One of the earliest Texan composers was a woman. Leonora Rives was born in Mission Valley, Texas about 1866. Biographical records are spotty and inconsistent. Her name was spelled "Leonara Reves" in the 1870 Census; "Rives" was placed in brackets9. Teresa Acosta Palomo considers her to be the first Tejana composer10. However, the same census data shows that her father was born in Alabama and her mother in Arkansas. Thus their ancestry may or may not have been Hispanic, since "Rives" could also be an English or a French name. Nonetheless, Leonora showed great talent as a pianist in her youth, but was unable to develop this gift due to a serious accident to her eyes. Turning to composing, she dedicated The New Administration Grand March (1885) to the newly elected President, Grover Cleveland. She was commissioned to write the Texas State Capitol Grand Waltz for that building's dedication in 1888. The piece was played as the governor, Louis Sullivan Ross, and his wife descended the stairs. Over 10,000 copies of this piece were sold. (Ross later became president of the Agricultural and Mechanical College.) Both of these pieces were published by Thomas Goggan. Rives later married Louis Felipe Diaz; thereafter, following the Spanish custom with surnames, she went by "Mrs. Leonora Rives-Diaz". Most of her work under this name were published by Hauschild. She dedicated her Twentieth Century Waltz (1901; see fig. 4) to Mr. and Mrs. Henry J. Hauschild, Sr., whose wedding photo appears on the cover. This cover was used in 1996 to illustrate the article on the Hauschild Music Company in The New Handbook of Texas11. [End Page 269]

Fig. 4. Mrs. Leonora Rives-Diaz, Twentieth Century Waltz.
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Fig. 4.

Mrs. Leonora Rives-Diaz, Twentieth Century Waltz.

Biographical information on many of these composers is sketchy or nonexistent. According to U.S. Census data, Antonie (Mrs. William) Reuthinger was born in 1890, making her only fourteen years old in 1904, when The Belle of Texas Waltz was published. If so, she was already an accomplished pianist. Likewise, Miss Marguerite Sheldon, who wrote the Aeroplane Waltzes, was perhaps the music teacher with that name listed in the 1911 and 1913 Polk City Directories for Galveston. The composer of the Mermaid Three-Step, [End Page 270] Lula T. Williams, may have been born in 1877 or 1878; it is difficult to distinguish her from several women with the same or similar names12. Her 1909 composition, a mazurka, has chromatic figurations suggesting a mermaid.

Music About Texas

Ragtime was the rage at the turn of the twentieth century, and Victoria, Texas was not far behind. Henry David Lawrence (1865–1942) exhibits a bit of Texan humor in The Cow-Boy Rag, A Spirited Two-Step of 1904 (see fig. 5). He was born and educated in Corpus Christi, but moved to Victoria, where he was active as a music teacher, bandleader, composer, and arranger. He arranged several pieces by other composers for piano, which suggests that these works may have been composed for or played originally by a band or orchestra.

Military groups were also popular during that era. For example, the Belknap Rifles, which won many prizes for competitive drills, was a military company based in San Antonio that existed from 1884 to 1897. Its captain, Robert B. Green, was a graduate of Texas A&M College, which was a military training school at that time. Charles R. Flick (1875–1940) dedicated The Belknap Rifles March to this outfit. Flick was born in Cuero, Texas to German immigrant parents; he moved to Nashville, Tennessee upon his marriage.

The Sweetest Girl in All the State of Texas (1896) was written by a reader and impersonator, Frederick Abbott, who was born in 1866 or perhaps 1869 in Canada, but settled in San Antonio. The young woman in the photo was sixteen-year-old Julia Hauschild, one of George Herman's daughters.

A Count, a Railroad, and a Waltz: An Italian Connection via the "Macaroni Line"

No history of Victoria, Texas is complete without mentioning Count Joseph Telfener and the New York, Texas, and Mexican Railroad. Count Joseph (Giuseppe) Telfener (1836–1898) was born in Naples, Italy to a wealthy family. He had already financed the building of railroads in Argentina when he met an American woman, Edna (or Ada) Hungerford, who was visiting Rome with her family; the two married and came back to the United States. Telfener entered into an agreement with his father-in-law, Daniel E. Hungerford, and another businessman, G. W. MacKay, to build this new railroad, which was planned to go from New York City to Mexico City. They decided to move their operation to Texas, partly because it is close to Mexico, but mainly because land there was cheap, or so it seemed. Although 350 miles of track had been projected to be built, only ninety-one miles were actually laid between 1881 and 1882 due to financial problems. The line went from Rosenberg, Texas to Victoria. Telfener hired 1,200 Italian workers for this job. He imported so much pasta to feed these men that the railroad was nicknamed the "Macaroni Line". The railroad was inaugurated with a great celebration on 4 July 1882, with the Victoria Silver Cornet Band "oom-pah-ing" throughout13; the train ran until 1884. Several towns along the track were named for Telferner (with an extra "r"), his daughters, and other members of the family. Some of the descendants of the Italian workers still live in South Texas. [End Page 271]

Fig. 5. H. D. Lawrence, The Cow-Boy Rag, A Spirited Two-Step
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Fig. 5.

H. D. Lawrence, The Cow-Boy Rag, A Spirited Two-Step

The Count Telfener Waltz (1899) was originally entitled El cielo por un beso (Heaven for One Kiss) and advertised as a "Mexican waltz". Its composer, John B. Viano, dedicated it to the Count and the other Italians who built the "Macaroni Line". The front cover has a photo of Telfener and his family, while the names of some of the workers appear on the back. Viano was French-American, not Italian-American as originally thought. He was [End Page 272] born in France in 1862 or 1863; he married and started a family in Victoria. His first published piece with the Hauschild Company was the Rosalie Schottische (1894), with a picture of his little daughter, Rosalie, on the cover. He moved to Brownsville at the southern tip of Texas around 1910 and set up his own music store. While there, he wrote the K.C. March and dedicated it to the Brownsville chapter of the Knights of Columbus, whose photograph appears on the cover. Viano, however, was not a member of the Knights14.

Fig. 6. John B. Viano, Count Joseph Telfener Waltz.
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Fig. 6.

John B. Viano, Count Joseph Telfener Waltz.

[End Page 273]

Also of interest to music librarians: Ellin Mackay Berlin (1903–1988), the second wife of songwriter Irving Berlin (1888–1989), and an author in her own right, was a great-niece of the Telfeners.

The Last Piece Published by the Hauschild Music Company

World War I and the influenza epidemic that came on its heels had drastic effects on the economy and morale of the country and the world. Another big change for the music publishing industry was the burgeoning popularity of new media such as sound recordings, films, and (soon) radio. More people were listening to their favorite stars sing the latest popular hits on the Victrola; fewer bought sheet music to play on their pianos at home. In addition, sheet music publishers in large cities dominated the market, making it difficult for small music publishers like Hauschild to compete.

In 1922, the Hauschild Company issued In Rotary before closing its publishing operation. Mrs. F. B. (Mary) Shields, the wife of a prominent physician, wrote new words to an old tune for the local Rotary Club. The familiar tune is Tramp, Tramp, Tramp, the Boys are Marching by George F. Root (1820–1895), written in 1864 during the American Civil War.

Between 1892 and 1922, the firm published over sixty titles. It continued to sell musical instruments, accessories, and household appliances until the early 1980s. The company's listing in the Victoria City Directory of 1978 described its offerings: "Musical Merchandise, Story & Clark Pianos, Lowrey Organs, Magnavox TV, Radio and Stereo, Records, Sheet Music, Panasonic, Sony Tape Recorders, Friedrich Air Conditioners, Kitchenaid Dishwashers"15.

Almost a Century of History Comes to an End

John W. Schaum (1905–1988) was a pianist, composer, music educator, and publisher from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, who gave workshops all over the country. Music teachers have used Schaum's method books and pedagogical sheet music for generations. He and Henry J. Hauschild, Jr. probably knew each other from their business dealings16. Hauschild asked him to write and publish a piece for the 1972 International Armadillo Confab and Exposition held in Victoria. The result was the Armadillo Polka. Schaum based the trio section on the first part of the Ideal Polka by Charles Strieber, the first piece published by Hauschild eighty years previously. Two local artists submitted designs for the cover; the red one showing an armadillo sitting on a map of Texas, with the Lone Star shining above it, was the chosen design. The Schaum Company is still active, now run by John Schaum's son, Wesley, and grandson, Jeff, and the Armadillo Polka is still available for purchase.

The Hauschild Music Company closed its doors in 1980 or 198117. Henry J. Hauschild, Jr., who had been running the store since his father's death in 1957, had reached retirement age, and he had no living children to carry on the business. In 1984, the Texas Historical Commission issued an historical marker for the opera house; however, contrary [End Page 274] to what was stated in the presentation, the edifice was not declared an historic building because it had been renovated and thus altered from its original form. Businesses still occupy the old building, and it is used as a venue for occasional events.


More than just the end of a business enterprise, the closing of the Hauschild Music Company and the Hauschild Opera House marked the culmination of a particular artistic and cultural life that existed even in a relatively small town. Yet, that era was not so long ago. Of the sixty-two compositions published by Hauschild listed in A Musical Chronicle, only slightly over half (thirty-three) are known to have extant copies. A task for the Cushing Library and other libraries around Texas would be to digitise and preserve the existing holdings, and perhaps to recover some of the missing pieces. To do so would help to preserve the state's patrimony. [End Page 275]

Felicia Piscitelli

Felicia Piscitelli is Rare Books and Special Collections Cataloger and Italian Resources Librarian at the Cushing Memorial Library & Archives, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA. She has a MM degree in music history and literature from the University of New Mexico, and a MLS from the University of Arizona. She has been at Texas A&M since 1991, but in Special Collections only since 2009. From 2012 to 2014, she coordinated a team of American and Mexican librarians in a grant-funded project to catalogue a collection of historic books and documents from colonial New Spain and early independent Mexico. She has written and published articles and book chapters on sacred music and hymnody, and currently is researching two sacred music collections in Cushing Library. The author would like to acknowledge Bethany J. Sheffer, Tiffany Locke, and Michele Stutzman of the Knights of Columbus Museum in New Haven, Connecticut for their help.


1. Henry J. Hauschild, A Musical Chronicle from the Historical Scrapbooks (Victoria, Texas: Henry J. Hauschild, 1999).

2. Leopold Morris, Pictorial History of Victoria and Victoria County, "Where the History of Texas Began". (Victoria: Mrs. Rose Morris, 1953), and Mrs. J. J. Warden, Through the Years with Music in a Little Texas Town: An Account of Music in Victoria, Texas (Victoria: Printed for the Victoria Music Club by the Victoria Advocate Pub. Co., 1943).

3. A Guide to the Delmer Rogers Collection, 1987–2014 at the Briscoe Center, http://www.lib.uTexas.edu/taro/utcah/00171/cah-00171.html, accessed 30 June 2017. Delmer Rogers (1939–) is a musicologist and former professor of music at the University of Texas, who specialises in the music history of the United States and Texas. A Musical Chronicle references him in several places.

4. OCLC/WorldCat database, http://www.worldcat.org/; Knights of Columbus Museum Web site, http://www.kofcmuseum.org/km/en/curator/sheetmusic.html, both accessed 30 June 2017.

5. Theora H. Whitaker, Victoria (Victoria: Printed by the Victoria Advocate, 1941), 71–72.

6. Henry J. Hauschild, The Runge Chronicle: A German Saga of Success (Victoria: Henry J. Hauschild, 1990), About the Author.

7. Frank W. Johnson, A History of Texas and Texans (Chicago; New York: American Historical Society, 1916), 1182.

8. Ancestry Database, http://rootsweb.ancestry.com/, accessed 30 June 2017.

9. Ibid.

10. Teresa Palomo Acosta and Ruthe Winegarten, Las Tejanas: 300 Years of History (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003), 289–292, 319.

11. Texas State Historical Association, The New Handbook of Texas (Austin: Texas State Historical Association, 1996), 507–508.

12. Ancestry Database, accessed 30 June 2017 (all three names).

13. Sid Feder, Longhorns and Short Tales of Old Victoria and the Gulf Coast (Victoria: Victoria Advocate Pub. Co., 1958), 69.

14. E-mail correspondence from Michele Stutzman, Knights of Columbus Museum, 9 June 2016.

15. Victoria (Victoria County, Texas) City Directory (Dallas.: R. L. Polk & Co., 1978), 306.

16. Schaum Publications, Inc., http://www.schaumpiano.net/searchprods.asp, accessed 30 June 2017.

17. Teresa Palomo Acosta, "Hauschild Music Company", Handbook of Texas Online, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/xahnw, accessed 30 June 2017 The date of closure is given as 1981 in this entry, but as 1980 in other sources appearing in A Musical Chronicle.

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