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creased prices and ineYciency in Free State industry, and a continued Xow of emigration to Britain and the United States after the worst of the Depression was over. Initially, large cattle farmers were hurt by Fianna Fáil’s policies in the 1930s, but they returned to their favored position when the economic war was settled in 1938. The economic war had sprung from political motives. Its settlement was a victory for de Valéra, as the Treaty ports were in Free State hands, millions of pounds were saved on land annuities, and Free State sovereignty was aYrmed. Daly also notes that a consensus emerged on the economic issues of the day, as the 1938 agreement forged a new alliance between the “owner-occupying farmers, protected manufacturers, and equally protected industrial workers.” The exporting cattle farmers gained access to the British market on the best terms, and industry continued to be protected. Thus, Fianna Fáil’s economic policy proved to be rather conservative and showed a surprising continuity with the past. There was never any substantial change in Wnancial policy or institutions; the economy was still based on agricultural exports to the British market, and emigration continued. Daly argues that social factors precluded any greater commitment to industrialization, which was perceived as a threat to Irish values and society. Fianna Fáil’s emphasis on native control, decentralization, and women staying at home reXected a desire to limit the impact of industrialization on Irish society. The party’s continuation of censorship and its commitment to the Irish language can be seen as cultural protectionism to parallel its economic policy. In the end, the “combined forces of beer, biscuits, and cattle interests, a British-oriented trading and Wnancial system, and a Catholic, peasant mentality proved formidable obstacles to change.” Industrial Development and Irish National Identity is economic history as it should be written: an informed, well-fortiWed interpretation, Wrmly set in the political and cultural context of the time. —Brian J. Kenny The Follies and Garden Buildings of Ireland, by James Howley, pp. 251, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1993, $60.00. Some of the most fascinating architectural legacies left on the landscape of Ireland from the era of wealthy eighteenth and nineteenth century landholders are the small structures built to ornament their estates. Often neglected by architectural hitorians, these garden builings and follies merit critical architectural analysis. Howley’s survey is a seminal study of these structures, and it is fortuitous, given the rapid decay of these monuments. One of the initial diYculties in assessing these building types is their resistance to clear deWnition and stylistic categorization. In deWnining “folly,” Howley deBOOK REVIEWS 180 lineates the three primary historic associations of the term: with foolishness or miscalculation ; with the French term feuillée, meaning “leafy arbor”; and with structures built in the Gothick style. Howley favors Lord Clark’s deWnition of follies as “monuments to a mood” and argues that delight is the primary impetus behind the construction of both follies and garden buildings. The intent to delight— aroused by a variety of associations, including escapism, fantasy, and memory— does not necessarily imply the construction of a garden building or folly for frivolous ends; indeed, some of the most inspired are functional structures, such as ice houses, bath houses, and libraries. As Howley argues: to relegate such buildings to the conWnes of uselessness and delight is to miss their central role in the creation of an art form of great importance—the natural-style garden. It is also a denigration of their often symbolic and sociologically complex content, the seriousness of intent found in their creators, and the rich talents in the men and women who designed and constructed them. The craze for the Picturesque in the eighteenth century inspired much of the construction examined in this study. The new natural, asymmetrical, and evocative garden arrangements espoused in England by Sir John Vanbrugh, Jonathan Swift, and, in particular, Alexander Pope, replaced the French tradition of gardens arranged in parterres and took hold quickly on the estates of the English aristocracy and the Anglo-Irish Ascendancy. The topography of Ireland, with its natural lakes, mountains, and vistas, was particularly...


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pp. 180-183
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