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EDITORS’ NOTES after the Act of Union, Britain’s colonial enterprise in Ireland found expression in attempts to suppress the local production of whiskey, alias poitín, and to substitute for its bibulation that of good English beers and bitters, porters and stouts. Writing from Texas, here Hewitt Thayer anatomizes the moral, legal, and socio-economic roles that the attempt to substitute beer-drinking for spirit-drinking played in the evolution of class and urbanity in Ireland before the Famine. Though the pint became “imperial,” the whiskey that George IV gave his patent to was, in fact, an illicit distillation. ❧ inventor of the “Whiskey Priest,” Graham Greene visited Ireland in 1923, at the close of the Civil War and his first Oxford year. Here Dr. Charles Duffy explores a signal oddity of Greene’s writing career—the paucity of Greene’s allusions to Ireland or uses of Irish matter in his fiction, a paucity that contradicts one’s expectations of this Catholic novelist. This circumstance , as Prof. Duffy suggests, remains a puzzle, for in later life Graham Greene tended to romanticize his few memories of Ireland’s struggle for independence. Prof. Duffy has published articles on Anthony Burgess and Seamus Heaney in Renascence and The Explicator. ❧ from Renaissance times to the present, music—and thought and feeling about music, Ireland’s courtly and popular musics—has played an Orphic role in the construction of Ireland’s communal identity. Excavating the terms and dimensions of that role—from amhrán to taoiseach—forms part of Prof. Mary Trachsel’s purpose here. The other part is to distinguish terms of authenticity and appropriation in the post-Enlightenment historiography of Irish traditional music. Dr. Trachsel conceived and composed this article with the support of the Irish American Cultural Institute’s visiting fellowship at University College, Galway, in 1993. Further chapters on Carolan, Moore, and Ó Riada will follow. EDITOR’S NOTES 3 irish poetry in Gaelic or Béarla has become façonnable. In Seamus Heaney the tradition just received a Nobel Prize, and in both The Southern Review and Poetrythe tradition has been lately scrutinized and richly exampled. These poems come from Paddy Bushe who, though born in Dublin in 1948, has made his living in County Kerry. Highly crafted, tightly written, Paddy Bushe’s meditations upon the landscapes of southwest Ireland possess both clarity and mood. The author of three collections of verse, one in Irish, Paddy Bushe received the American Ireland Fund prize at the Listowel Writers’ Week, and that fourth collection will be published in 1996. Paddy Bushe’s collections are Poems with Amergin (1989), Teanga (1990), and Digging Towards the Light (1994), from John Deane’s Dedalus Press. ❧ urban life in the United States tied up the fates of the American Irish with those of the American blacks, as Peter Quinn’s Civil War epic Banished Children of Eve so vividly documented. Here, with greater brevity, DeeGee Lester recounts the travails of Reconstruction Memphis where the recently settled Irish had risen swiftly to prominence in the city police and fire-fighting forces and, thus, into political prominence. “Colored” Union troops discharged at nearby Fort Pickering, together with freed blacks came to blows with newly ascendant Irish in early May, 1866. DeeGee Lester has, since, 1991, edited the Annual Research Reports for the American Conference for Irish Studies. ❧ neutrality—the degrees and nuances of the Republic of Ireland’s practice of that highly qualified world-stance has been probably will always be the topic of numerous highly detailed histories and political science studies. Here Prof. Joseph O’Grady, working from newly available archival resources, recounts Ireland’s role in that most dangerous ten days of the Atomic Age—the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. The diplomats among ÉIRE-IRELAND’s readers will appreciate Prof. O’Grady’s demonstration of how “unneutral acts” may express neutrality. ❧ three years before the 1916 Rising Dublin was distressed by the disorders of the 1913 Lockout in which William Martin Murphy and James Larkin were the chief adversaries. Larkin’s paper The Irish Worker was countered by The Toiler, edited by Patrick McIntyre and funded by Dublin employers . As John Newsinger reveals here, McIntyre’s...


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