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Reviews 287 as well. While deploring mutilations of the text, he can accept, and even applaud, methods of conveying meaning and creating effects peculiar to the theatre of other centuries, and so is able to narrate not only the history of the text in performance, but the different means by which the aesthetics of performance through history rose to the demands of the script. The description of Capon’s Piranesian prison scene for Kemble, reflecting the psychological caverns and recesses of Leontes’ jealousy, and the eruption of Mount Etna during the trial scene in Burton’s production, are examples; and an analysis of the sound effects in the trial scene under Tree’s direction leads Bartholomeusz to the accurate conclusion that Tree’s exercises in spectacular realism “were never strictly realistic” (p. 132). Where the author fails in his historical responsibilities is in his treat­ ment of Charles Kean. Kean’s archaeological fanatacism and love of spectacle did indeed distort the play as we know it, with its Pyrrhic dances and props copied from artifacts in the British Museum; but merely to conclude that “if Kean misled his age it must at the same time be acknowledged that the age was quite willing to be misled” (p. 99) is to do justice neither to Kean nor to his age. Surely there is an aesthetic of performance at work even here, with an appreciation of the text and a vitality all its own, awaiting a twentieth-century scholar who can decode and appreciate it. But this is only a minor reservation about a book which is elegantly written, sensitive to the play and to theatre history as a whole, and worthy of the repeated use to which scholars are likely to put it for many years in the future. CARY M. MAZER U niversity of Pennsylvania James P. Driscoll. Iden tity in Shakespearean D ram a. Lewisburg, Pa.: Bucknell University Press; London and Toronto: Associated Univer­ sity Presses, 1983. Pp. 202. $25.00. In this thoughtful book, James Driscoll approaches the question of identity in Shakespearean drama from the perspective of Jungian thought, especially in terms of Jung’s writings on religion and Renaissance alchemy. Refreshingly free of dogmatism, and only occasionally marred by jargon, the relatively brief study touches on a number of works—most notably the Falstaff plays, H am let, O thello, T w elfth N igh t, M easure fo r M easure, K in g L ear, and T h e T em pest—as it sketches Shakespeare’s development in sophistication and insight in the imagining and depiction of character. For Driscoll, the culmination of Shakespeare’s focus on identity is T he T em pest, which he sees as a comedic “metastance,” or qualifying overview to the tragedy of K in g L ear, the play in which Shakespeare “explores archetypal wholeness in its full complexity and raises the largest psycho­ logical, philosophical, and theological questions.” Driscoll defines four aspects or categories of identity in Shakespeare: real, social, conscious and ideal identities. Real identity encompasses a character’s actual strengths and weaknesses and the values and drives that motivate him or her and constitutes the character’s unique individuality; social identity includes the conceptions the society within a play holds of 288 Comparative Drama a character and is frequently defined by social roles, family obligations, class expectations, and political offices; conscious identity refers to a char­ acter’s ruling conceptions about himself or herself; ideal identity subsumes the tensions between the conscious, social, and real identities and consti­ tutes wholeness, a willingness to live—consciously and authentically—the real identity. This schema is awkward and unwieldy, but Driscoll does not belabor the categories. In his hands the distinctions prove useful, offering insight into the dilemmas of several characters, particularly those who suffer from various kinds of identity confusion and are estranged from their real identities (Richard II, for instance) or who struggle to achieve selfknowledge (Hamlet, for example). Perhaps the most successful of Dris­ coll’s applications of the schema is his chapter on O th ello, where he demonstrates Iago’s manipulation of the Moor’s confused social identity in order to alter...


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pp. 287-288
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