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94 Comparative Drama verses the process of paranoid delusional formation that Freud describes” (pp. 82-83), seems inadequate to explain Rosalind’s behaviour. Although she may escape from her uncle physically because of her disguise, I do not find that the text indicates that she feels psychologically less per­ secuted because she carries on an apparently homosexual courtship. In his chapter on 1 H en ry IV , Krieger discusses the significance of the First Carrier’s comment to Gadshill, “I think it be two a’clock” (II.i.33). Krieger seems not to notice that in the first speech of this scene, the Carrier points out that it is four o’clock, apparently because “Charles’ wain is over the new chimney” (II.i.2). Possibly he is lying to Gadshill because he suspects that he is a spotter for highwaymen; or the Carrier may be genuinely mistaken or confused about the actual time. In any case, Krieger should not make a very firm point about the “carrier’s knowing the time” (p. 153). Krieger’s intricate study, however, both demands and repays a close second reading, and perhaps a final chapter in which the recurring con­ cepts of “play,” nature, temporality, objectification, subjectification, and displacement were drawn together and discussed— albeit briefly—would be helpful in clarifying some of the issues at hand. Nonetheless, I admit that I enjoyed reading this book—more than twice. W. L. GODSHALK U n iversity o f C incinnati James R. Scrimgeour. Sean O ’C asey. Twayne’s English Authors Series. Boston: 1978. Pp. 186. $8.95. John H. Reilly. Jean G iraudoux. Twayne’s World Authors Series. Boston: 1978. Pp. 167. $9.95. The Twayne phenomenon has outlived its detractors of the early years, by now a quarter century ago. Fashions in critical methodology have swept in—and out—and have not dislodged either the stability of the early monographs or the vitality of the new ones. The two mono­ graphs under discussion demonstrate why: whether at series best like Scrimgeour’s O ’C asey or at series mean like Reilly’s G iraudoux, Twayne monographs always present verifiable data, crucial bio-bibliographical chronology, and general critical consensus. They do so with clear prose and accessible terminology. The composite author-corpus is presented as a unified, organic whole. If an author has markedly different styles— as does O’Casey—the common denominator behind the differences is presented. If an author has an elusive message—as does Giraudoux— this is presented as part of an explainable response to common givens in his experiences. Scrimgeour is enthusiastic about O’Casey and has lived with his work so thoroughly and sympathetically that he can criticize from both inside and outside. He uses O’Casey’s A u tobiograph ies as the frame of the major plays. Like a genial choragus Scrimgeour stands to one side Reviews 95 commenting on O’Casey as actor in his own drama, of which the plays are an artistic ideological extension, regardless of the period mode (expressionistic, naturalistic) in which they are cast. What results is a warm picture of an earnest, cantankerous, socialist self-made dramatist. Reilly also presents Giraudoux as of a piece. But he personally finds Giraudoux tedious as a person and frivolous as a dramatist. Reilly is somewhat puzzled by Giraudoux’ stature during the late twenties and thirties and makes it quite clear that this reputation is in eclipse. Reilly is especially intent upon linking the thematic or substantive inadequacies of Giraudoux’ work with his unattractive personal character. Reilly is particularly anxious that a reader know that Giraudoux was a dilettante in the diplomatic corps and the public information service. These facts make it easier for the reader to accept Giraudoux’ willful dreamers as products of a well-bred, advantaged but dissatisfied member of the Establishment. Yet although my comments may sound critical, Reilly’s monograph is no less useful to beginning students of drama than Scrimgeour’s. Neither book will date—demonstrating once (twice) again the soundness of the Twayne strategy. MARILYN GADDIS ROSE STJN Y-B ingham ton G o eth e’s P lays. Trans. Charles E. Passage. New York: Frederick Ungar, 1980. Pp...


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