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According to Tribal Critical Race Theory, Native American students have low retention rates due to the structural barriers and racism inherent in colleges and universities. Similarly, structural barriers and racism could put Native American students at risk for victimization and substance use, thus influencing their academic success. The purposes of this study were to examine rates of victimization and substance use among Native American students in comparison to other students and to assess the perceived impact of these experiences on academics. Results suggest that Native American college students experience disproportionate rates of victimization, which in turn affects their academic functioning. Implications for college retention are discussed.