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From the Late Republic to High Empire, inscriptions attest to seventeen freed magistrates, including quaestors, aediles, duoviri, octoviri, and quattuorviri, from colonies, oppida, and municipia in Greece, Macedonia, Illyria, Africa, and Italy. These examples obviate the assumption that freedmen could only hold office in a Caesarian colony before the lex Visellia (24 c.e.). Rather, individual freedmen were elected thanks to patronage, public benefactions, and a local preference for economic success over traditional, aristocratic hierarchies such as Rome’s. The fact that Roman customs and laws did not govern all colonies or municipia equally demonstrates the flexibility of Roman imperialism.