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This article examines the constitution of astrology in four Hebrew works, two written before and two after the emergence of Islam. It argues that there is a significant difference in both form and substance in pre and post-Islamic works. In all cases the works strive to nativize a cosmopolitan tradition, and to integrate partially theorized or decontextualized concepts. The pre-Islamic works use a cosmopolitan model of astrological medicine that they particularize by means of remythologizing and an appeal to experience. The post-Islamic works differ from each other and from the pre-Islamic works in their use of Islamic discourse to authorize their views, and in terms of their relation to earlier texts.