This essay analyzes the diplomacy of the Parliament of Catalonia in the Autonomous Community of Catalonia, Spain, toward the Mediterranean region. In recent years, the academic literature has shown increased interest in the wide range of international activities undertaken by members of parliaments at the subnational level. Yet the academic study on diplomacy of the Parliament of Catalonia remains limited. Because there is a well-rooted tradition of foreign activity in the Catalan political culture, the Parliament of Catalonia has been working consistently in the international sphere. The Mediterranean dimension illustrates the strengths and the weaknesses of such activities.