This article investigates the performance-based logistics (PBL) theory and explores the potential of introducing the PBL service model to Taiwan’s heavy vehicle supply chains. A multiple case study approach is used to explore this research question. Four case firms are selected for this study. The analyses have identified several major risks and influencing factors that hinder the application of the PBL model to Taiwan’s heavy vehicle supply chains. However, with PBL’s strength to bring sustainability benefits, an extended assessment analysis of the risks and influencing factors is conducted, and the counter-risk strategies are explored. This study has shown there is a high opportunity for PBL development in Taiwan if the obstacles can be dealt collaboratively in the heavy vehicle supply chains. The research findings provide valuable insights into Taiwan’s heavy vehicle supply chains and similar emerging Asian economies relying mainly on international heavy vehicle suppliers.