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BOOK ll:EVmws 125 fundamentai theology. This approach, drawn heavily. from Karl Rabner, has rejected the old method of trying to prove abstractly, on the basis of reason alone, the truth of Christian faith. Instead, it focuses on showing the credibility or desirability (Glaubwurdigkeit) of Christian faith itself, but in a manner understandable to those on the " outside " (40). According to Wagner, such an approach to fundamental theology would involve three. basic tasks (51ff). First, there would be the need to clarify the fundamental components of Christian faith. By this he means a phenomenological reflection on the Word of God, the nature of humanity as believer, and the nature of the church as believing community. Second, there would be the attempt to confirm or establish these fundamental components of Christian faith as credible and desirable. This would be done on two fronts: a) through a reflection on and validation of the methods used to determine these components and b) through an attempt {by correlation) to make these components understandable to those on the outside. Finally there would be the task of apologetics which would directly address objections to the basic Christian worldview. Wagner's book is a helpful introduction to a particular conception of fundamental theology and is worthy of translation into English. Its most significant problem is that it has not dealt adequately with the recent alternative conceptions of the discipline which would focus more attention on issues of theological method (Sohnung, Joest) or would argue that apologetics is not part of fundamental theology (Stirnimann, Knauer). An adequate introduction to the discipline per se should have dealt more with these alternatives. RANDY L. MADDOX Sioux Falls College Sioux Falls, South Dakota Liberation Theology in Latin .America. By JAMES V. SCHALL, S.J. San Francisco : Ignatius, 1982. Pp. x + 402. $10.95. In this compact volume, Schall offers a valuable summary exposition and critique of liberation theology, backed up by a selection of critical articles and some highly pertinent documentation. In a lengthy preliminary essay he surveys the European origins of that theology and their adaptation to the concrete particularities of deprivation and oppression long indigenous to a conventionally Roman Catholic Latin America, where the Church had for long been too comfortable in her master's house, too complaisant in the presence of careless wealth and hopeless poverty. He details the factors which ┬Ěproduced the current BOOK REVIEWS theological recoil from this apathy : the ready-to-hand Marxist social analysis; the ressentiment toward the United States, the decision to place the poor at the center of a new Christian spirituality following close upon the conviction that traditional Catholicism was constitutionally inimical to progress, and that a change in religion was necessary. Out of this arose a new religion, which Schall characterizes, quite correctly in this reviewer's opinion, as a Christological heresy, eccentric precisely in its displacement of the risen Christ as the source and cause of all liberation. Liberation consequently takes on the east provided by a new historicism, in which an inevitable process drives the proletariat from poverty to dependence to exploitation to conscientization to revolution and finally to the establishment of a sacral socialism, one whose lineaments refuse description . It is this reduction of politics to sacred necessity which is the focal point of the criticism which Schall's essay provides, which a dozen articles then corroborate written by theologians such as H. U. von Balthasar and Jean Galot, by political scientists such as Jeane Kirkpatrick and Michael Novak, and by more general commentators on public affairs such as Dale Vree and John O'Donahue; particularly valuable are two articles by Roger Heckel, S.J., of the Papal Commission on Justice and Peace. The book concludes with a collection of seven diverse " documents"; these include the Pope's initial address to the Assembly of Latin American Bishops gathered at Puebla in 1979, the " Message to the People of Latin America " delivered by the bishops at the close of the Puebla meeting, and another address, given to a general audience by the Pope immediately upon his return from Puebla. The Papal addresses particularly are to be very carefully read, particularly in view of the tendency, practically universal in...


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