Since 2000, the issues of multiculturalism and multicultural society have been actively discussed and debated in Korean society. This article categorizes multiculturalism discourses in Korean society into “state-led multiculturalism” and “citizen-led multiculturalism” and examines their backgrounds, main contents, and strengths and weaknesses. To analyze the contents of “state-led multiculturalism,” this paper examines the policies and laws related to foreigners and immigrant brides as proposed by the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family, and the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. To analyze the contents of “citizen-led multiculturalism,” this paper examines the activities and viewpoints of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that carry out multicultural programs for foreign migrant workers and foreign brides who have married Koreans. Results show that the Korean government’s multicultural policy is not a policy of multiculturalism, but rather a multiculture-oriented policy which is very assimilationist in essence. Also, the Korean government’s multicultural policy is not entirely “state-led” or “citizen-led” but more or less a “policy network” between the government and NGOs. As a policy recommendation, this paper proposes “stepwise multiculturalism” to combine the ideals of citizen-led multiculturalism and the practicality of state-led multiculturalism.