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News of the Field / 251 Science on Qi Research Assessments Khoury, B., Lecomte, T., Fortin, G., Masse, M., Therien, P., Bouchard, V., Chapleau, M.A., Paquin, K., & Hofmann, S.G. (2013). Mindfulness-based therapy: A comprehensive meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 33: 763-771. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2013.05.005 This was a quantitative review of 209 research studies (n = 12,145 participants) that examined the effectiveness of various therapies that emphasized mindfulness meditation. Therapies were directed to a wide range of physical and medical conditions and psychological disorders in clinical and nonclinical populations. Mindfulness-based therapies (MBT) were more effective than psychoeducational interventions, supportive therapies, relaxation procedures and imagery/suppression techniques with small to moderate effect sizes that were clinically significant. MBT effects were equivalent to traditional cognitive behavior therapy, behavior therapy and pharmacological treatments. Effect sizes were larger when treating psychological disorders and smaller when treating physical or medical conditions. Anxiety disorders showed the largest effect sizes, followed by depression. Effectiveness continued after an average follow-up period of 29 weeks. In studies also examining measures of mindfulness, surprisingly only 45% of all studies, participants receiving MBT reported higher levels of mindfulness and that gains in mindfulness were maintained at last follow-up. Moreover, there was a strong positive relationship between levels of mindfulness in clinicians and patients and clinical outcomes, which suggests that changes in mindfulness mediate intervention effectiveness. Chi, I., Jordan-Marsh, M., Guo, M., Xie, B., & Bai, Z. (2013). Tai chi and reduction of depressive symptoms for older adults: A meta-analysis of randomized trials. Geriatrics and Gerontology International, 13: 2-12. DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-0594.2012.00882.x This quantitative review included 4 randomized controlled trials (n = 253 participants) that compared tai chi with wait-listed control groups, or control groups that received exercise, no exercise or health education. 252 / Journal of Daoist Studies 7 (2014) All participants were at least 55 years old and reported depressive symptoms as measured by standardized rating scales. Participants came from community, outpatient and inpatient populations. Interventions that included only tai chi were included; studies that included tai chi as part of a more complex treatment were excluded from analysis. The primary outcomes examined were reduction in depressive symptoms. Tai chi was found to be effective in reducing depressive symptoms. Effect sizes were significant and small to moderate in strength. Lakhan, S. E., Schofield, K.L. (2013). Mindfulness-based therapies in the treatment of somatization disorders: A systematic review and metaanalysis . PLoS One, 8(8): e71834. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0071834 This quantitative review included 13 randomized controlled trials (n = 1,032 participants who were almost all female) that examined the effectiveness of several types of mindfulness-based interventions (MBI; meditation, qigong, yoga, mindfulness-based stress reduction, and mindfulness -based cognitive therapy) on patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia , chronic fatigue syndrome or irritable bowel syndrome. Participants receiving MBI were compared to those assigned to wait-listed control groups, or control groups receiving education, support, relaxation, or treatment as usual. Outcomes included symptom severity, fatigue, pain, physical functioning, emotional functioning, global ratings of selfimprovement , and adverse events. Compared to control group participants , those who received MBI demonstrated significantly more improvement in symptom severity for all somatization disorders, pain and quality of life for those with irritable bowel syndrome, and depression for those with general somatization disorder. Significant standardized mean differences favoring MBI were small to moderate in size. Mindfulness -based stress reduction and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy were more effective than eclectic forms of MBI. Langhorst, J., Klose, P., Dobos, G.J., Bernardy, K., & HaĆ¼ser, W. (2013). Efficacy and safety of meditative movement therapies in fibromyalgia syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Rheumatology International, 33: 193-207. DOI 10.1007/s00296012 -2360-1 News of the Field / 253 This quantitative review examined 7 randomized controlled trials (n = 362 participants diagnosed with fibromyalgia) that evaluated the effectiveness and safety of qigong, tai chi and yoga. The movement-based interventions were compared to wait-listed control groups or control groups that received education, emotional support, treatment as usual, or some form of active therapy. Outcomes included pain, sleep, fatigue, depression, and...


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pp. 251-258
Launched on MUSE
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