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News of the Field / 241 Science on Qi Reviews Chen, K.W., Berger, C.C., Manheimer, E., Forde, D., Magidson, J., Dachman, L., & Lejuez, C.W. 2012. Meditative therapies for reducing anxiety: A systematic re‑ view and meta‑analysis of randomized controlled trials. Depression and Anxiety, 29: 545‑562. DOI 10.1002/da.21964 More than 1000 abstracts were screened, and more than 200 research articles were reviewed. 36 independent, randomized controlled trials involving 2,466 participants (average study n = 80) with anxiety as a primary illness or secondary concern (experienced in relationship to another illness such as cancer) were iden‑ tified and included in the meta‑analytic review. Effect sizes were small to mod‑ erate in size favoring meditation compared to various types of control conditions. Standardized mean difference (SMD), an indicator of the size of the effect, was ‑ 0.52 for all meditation interventions compared to participants in a wait‑list con‑ trol group that received treatment as usual, ‑0.59 compared to participants in a control group that received some other form of attention such as counseling, ‑ 0.27 compared to alternative, active forms of treatment such as progressive re‑ laxation. Meditation resulted in significantly greater reduction in expression of anxiety symptoms. A significant strength of this review was inclusion of moving forms of meditation including yoga, taiji quan and qigong, which are often excluded from reviews of meditation interventions. In fact, this review revealed that mov‑ ing forms of meditation produced the largest effect sizes (SMD = ‑0.63 to ‑0.68) for reducing anxiety when compared to static seated forms of meditation such as visualization using guided imagery (‑0.39) or mindfulness meditation (‑0.51). No negative side effects were reported. These studies suggest that meditation— especially yoga, taiji quan or qigong—may provide an important adjunctive therapy for those who experience anxiety. Vøllstad, J., Nielson, M.B., & Nielsen, G.H. 2012. Mindfulness‑ and acceptance‑ based interventions for anxiety disorders: A systematic review and meta‑ analysis. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51: 239‑260. OI:10.1111/j.2044‑ 8260.2011.02024.x More than 500 potentially relevant articles were screened, and 19 studies (5 randomized controlled trials) involving 491 participants (average study n = 26) were found that focused on patients with anxiety disorders as the primary com‑ plaint. Mindfulness‑based therapies included Mindfulness‑based Stress Reduc‑ tion (MBSR), Mindfulness‑based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), Mindfulness and 242 / Journal of Daoist Studies 6 (2013) Acceptance‑based Group Therapy (MAGT), Acceptance‑based Behavior Therapy (ABBT), and Acceptance and Commitment‑based Therapy (ACT). All therapeutic interventions have in a common an emphasis on the following aspects of mind‑ fulness: changing one’s relationship to experience, focus on the present moment, non‑judgment, and recognition and control of discursive thoughts and feelings. Average effect sizes were moderate to large. Post‑treatment in all studies, participants who received the intervention im‑ proved significantly compared to pre‑treatment levels for anxiety (Hedges g = 1.08) and depression (Hedges g = 0.85). Pre‑ to post‑treatment effect size for im‑ proved quality of life was moderate (Hedges g = 0.65). Effect sizes were smaller for studies employing control or comparison groups (between groups Hedges g = ‑0.83 for anxiety and between groups Hedges g = ‑0.72 for depression), indicating larger treatment gains for participants in the mindfulness groups. Treatment gains were maintained at 3‑month follow‑up assessment. Interventions that em‑ ployed mindfulness exclusively demonstrated effects almost as large (Hedges g = 0.96) compared to more complex interventions that employed multiple compo‑ nents (e.g., MBSR, MBCT) in addition to mindfulness (Hedges g = 1.27). These effect sizes compare favorably to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, which is the treatment of choice for anxiety. Piet, J., Würtzen, H., & Zachariae, R. 2012. The effect of mindfulness‑based ther‑ apy on symptoms of anxiety and depression in adult cancer patients and survi‑ vors: A systematic review and meta‑analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80(6): 1007‑1020. DOI: 10.1037/a0028329 More than 330 studies were screened, and 22 independent, randomized con‑ trolled trials involving 1,403 participants (average study n = 64) that examined reduction in depression and/or anxiety were included in...


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pp. 241-247
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