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This article argues that the political thought of Paul-Henri Thiry, baron d’Holbach (1723–1789) offers insights relevant for the solution to a problem that recent accounts of cosmopolitanism face: the problem of how our interests could motivate cosmopolitanism. D’Holbach argues that our interest in having justified self-esteem is what can motivate fulfilling duties of justice, including duties of justice across national borders. The article explores how d’Holbach’s normative conception of self-esteem derives from his conception of basic human needs and needs-based natural rights. It is argued that this conception could provide persuasive responses to recent criticisms of cosmopolitanism.