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80 THE CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW OntheOld Trail: ThroughBritish Columbiaafter Forty Years. By MoRI•.¾ ROB•.RTs. London: Eveleigh Nash & Grayson, 1027. Pp. xiv, 242; illustrations. IN 1884, Mr. Morley Roberts, then unknownin Englishliterature, came to Canada from Texas, where he had beenemployedas a sheep-herder. He worked on the constructionof the Canadian Pacific Railway in the Rockies •nd theSelkirks; andthendriftedtoandfroin BritishColumbia asa manual labourer. The story of that life he told in hisfirst book, The Western A vernus. Forty-two years later (1020), he returned to Canada, a well-known author. In this volumehe describesthe incidentsof his visit. Hastily he skimsover its eventsuntil, in Winnipeg, he picksup his trail of forty yearsbefore. Thereafter every scenerecallsto him the happeningsof his sojournand impresses upon him the changesthat have occurredin the interval. Constantly he tries to find spotswhere he had camped, or placeswherehe hadworkedor tramped,and to discovervestigiaof some oldtunnel, track, or trail, with its undimmedassociations.He isastonished at thedevelopment inthemountain section, and,especially, at thecity of Vancouver, the site of which, when he last saw it, was virgin forest. He spends sometimefishingon Ice river, Mara take, and Shuswaplake, and, fishermanlike,enjoysrecountinghis adventures. But he complains --and rightly--of thewastefuldestructionof the forestsby fire, and axe, and modernloggingmethods. The bookisinterestinglywritten. Though thereare somesmallerrors in historicalstatements,it will make a fine companion-piece, or sequel, to The Western Avernus. The text is interlarded with bits of verse written in an attractive, free-and-easystyle. The volumeiswell-printed, beautifully illustrated, and has an index. F. W. HowA¾ OrientalOccupation ofBritish Columbia. By TogaMCINNES. Vancouver, B.C.: Sun PublishingCompany. 1927. Pp. 170. T}x•.author hasspenthis life in British Columbia and in China, the two placescloselyconnected with this subject. In 1907 he investigatedthe Vancouveranti-Orientalriots;in 1909hedraftedthe CanadianImmigration Act of 1910. He is,thus,qualified to deal with theOriental question, from every angle. For some years the Chinese have been, practically, excludedfrom entry into Canada; and Japaneseimmigration has been limited by a gentleman'sagreement,loyally observed. Mr. Mclnnes is concerned over those Orientals who are now in the province, and the problems arising from their fecundity, their long hoursof labour, and their low REVIEWS OF BOOKS 81 standardsof living. He pointsout that they constituteone-twelfthof the population of British Columbia, and that their birth rate is three times as high as that of Anglo-Saxoncountries. To him the combination of these factors means that, unlesssome drastic remedy be applied, the provinceis on the highroad to Oriental economiccontrol. In his view: It is war now betweenthe Oriental and the Euro-Canadian for possession of British Columbia; the prize regionof the whole Pacific (p. 157). Therefore,the Dominion governmentshouldstrictly enforcethe present immigrationlaws;prevent the fisheries of British Columbiafrom passing into Japanesehands;and forbid the further unrestrictedentry of Japanesewomen (p. 117). The white traders,he urges,shouldorganizeand agitate againstthe Orientalsasdid the labourinterestsin the eightiesand nineties. The Orientals, becausethey "are our economicsuperiorsin making a profit from the cultivation of the land" (p. 56), should, by judiciousenforcementof vaguely-wordedlegislation,be kept off it. His argument is that the provincemust close our ports to them entirely as immigrants, and disqualify and handicap those already here whose work takes the bread from the mouths of our own people. Thus we might encouragethem to go home (p. 132). Indeed, his chapter on "The Prolific Chinese", especiallypp. 68 and 69, indicatesthat in his view the only goodChineseare the dead ones. His further movement against these peoplewould be by legislation authorizing the municipal licensingauthority to refuse,at discretion to issuetradelicences to persons not eligibleasvotersat municipalelections; empowering that body to classify and deal with tenant farmers; and enablingit to re[uselicences for certain classes of business within certain definedareas. This isreminiscentof the statute of 3 Edward IV, whereby basket-weavers,wire-drawers, and other foreignerswere permitted to haveshopsonly in a certainpart of London. But it seemsto usthat this problemis onewhoserootslie deep,and of which a satisfactorysolution can scarcely be found in elastically-worded statutes, interpreted and enforced with bias and partiality. F. W. HOWAY The Shadow of Tradition: A Tale of Old Glengarry. By C. HOLMES MACGILLIVR•¾. Ottawa: The Graphic Publishers. 1927. Pp. 303. As would be expectedfrom the tartan on the jacket, the thistle on the front cover, and...